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Bibliography

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All :: A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, J, K, L, M, N, O, P, R, S, T, U, V, W, Y, Z, Ö 
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References
Caglar, Ayse
Verordnete Rebellion: Deutsch-türkischer Rap und türkischer Pop in Berlin
In Ruth Mayer and Mark Terkessidis, editor, Globalkolorit
page 41-56.
Hannibal Verlag,
1998

Abstract:

“Enacted Rebellion” is concerned with German Turkish Rap, Hip Hop music in Berlin in the late 1990s, but also with the development of Turkish Pop music scenes as an opener for the representation of German Turkish scenes in public urban spaces. Caglar describes the contemporary German Turkish Rap and Hip Hop scene, discussing their social dynamics and pointing out that specifically Rap music is still associated with marginalized and ghettoized youth. The article explains the important role of music-oriented activities at youth centers and the influence of social workers for the increasing popularity of this music genre for (mainly male) German Turkish youth and contextualizes the development of a German Turkish pop culture both politically and socially. Her main argument is that the spatial linking of 'ethnic minorities' to ‘ghettos’ could lead to the neglect of other existing German Turkish public spaces in Berlin, which are important starting points for new draftings of community and identity. The article demonstrates how Turkish pop music has influenced the emergence of German Turkish club scenes in Berlin and thus of new public spaces. Turkish Restaurants, Cafés and bars existed since the 1970s, but with initially more Turkish folkloric music and ambient, specifically in districts with a high German Turkish population. Caglar points out that with the beginning of the early 1990s, new Turkish Clubs, Bars and Discotheques present themselves in a more modern style and move away from perceived 'ghetto' to central districts, functioning as important venues for the identity building process of young German Turks.

Caldeira, Teresa P. R.
Fortified Enclaves: The New Urban Segregation
In Setha M Low, editor, Theorizing the city
page 83-106.
Rutgers University Press,
2005

Keywords: fortified enclaves, segregation, social inequality, privatisation

Abstract:

In this article Caldeira analyses a new model of spatial segregation and the transformed quality of public life created by the proliferation of fortified enclaves – privatised, enclosed and monitored spaces for residence, consumption, leisure and work. They tend to be socially homogeneous environments, mostly for middle and upper classes and confer a high status that implies a new code of social distinction explicitly referring to separation, isolation and protection. Caldeira states that Enclaves are mainly justified by the fear of violence and appeal to those seeking to abandon the poor and marginalised. In cities fragmented by fortified enclaves difficulties arise to maintain the principles of openness and free circulation that have been the most significant organising values of modern cities. As a consequence the character of public space and of citizens’ participation in public life changes. Caldeira emphasises results such as the diminishment of heterogeneous contacts that leads to a rigid perception of social differences and proximity with people from different groups seen as dangerous while inequality and distance increases. Although the degree of segregation varies in different contexts it is present in similar forms and effects regarding the organisation of public life. The new enclaves represent a new form of organising social differences and creating segregation in many cities around the world. The author points out that although modern western cities have always been marked by social inequalities and spatial segregation they maintained signs of openness and values connected to the idea of public space accessible to all. However, the new fortified enclaves in cities such as Los Angeles and Sao Paulo reject these principles and instead take inequality and separation as their values. They use instruments of modernist city planning and architectural design to destroy public spaces while aiming to enlarge specific private domains in order to fulfil public functions in a segregated way. Caldeira argues that defensible architecture is likely to promote conflict instead of preventing it, as it underlines social inequalities and lack of commonalities. She goes on to discuss how the new pattern of urban segregation may relate to experiences of citizenship and democracy and questions that contemporary cities segregated by fortified enclaves generate conditions conducive to democracy, as people need to acknowledge people from different groups as citizens for this. Caldeira suggests rethinking the parameters of citizenship in such cities as the criterion for participation in political life could be local residence rather than national citizenship. Furthermore it may be possible that this local participation is increasingly necessary to make those cities liveable for the impoverished population that increasingly consists of immigrants. Caldeira draws two conclusions, one pessimistic and one optimistic. Pessimistically the already achieved direction of new segregation makes it impossible for a variety of social groups to engage in political life in which common goals and solutions would have to be negotiated. Here citizenship is meaningless. Optimistically the change in the criteria for admission to political life and the consequent change in status for a great amount of the population generate a wider engagement in the search for solutions to common problems that potentially bridges some distances.

Canetti, Elias
Masse und Macht
Fischer, Frankfurt
1980

Keywords: crowds, masses, power, survivor, command, transformation

Abstract:

This book, first published by Elias Canetti in 1960, examines the characteristics and dynamics of crowds and power. By exploring the formation of masses into which individuals merge, Canetti emphasises that individuals lose their fear of being touched in a crowd through a collective sense of unity that makes them forget social distances and hierarchies. A crowd, according to Canetti, is characterised by ‘growth’, ‘equality’, ‘density’ and ‘direction’. Drawing on different fields of the humanities (history, philosophy, sociology and anthropology), mythology, his own experiences and thoughts, the author looks at a variety of crowds, such as armies, funerals, packs of hounds, rain dances, parliaments or national mass symbols. Writing against the backdrop of Nazism, Canetti suggests that power is implied in the survivor's triumph over the dead as well as in the paranoid leader’s control over his subjects’ life and death. Other instruments of power described by Canetti include questioning, keeping a secret and silence (the latter of which, however, restricts the ‘fluidity of transformation’). In addition, Canetti tries to explain why crowds obey leaders. Therefore, he outlines the two parts of a command: first, the impulse that forces the individual to obey for fear of punishment; second, the sting that continues to remind her or him of the command. Moreover, this means that the stings from commands may accumulate and eventually lead to the reversal in which the subordinate transmits the command to others.

Carr, Stephen
Public space
of Cambridge series in environment and behavior
Cambridge University Press, Cambridge
1995

Keywords: Public spaces Public spaces Planning Case studies United States City and town life United States Urban regions Environment planning United States


Ahmed, Sara , Castañeda, Claudia and Fortier, Anne-Marie
Uprootings/Regroundings. Questions of Home and Migration
Berg, Oxford
2003

Keywords: migration, processes of homing, inhabitancy, transnationalism

Abstract:

This book thematises ways in which different bodies and communities inhabit and move across familial, national and diasporic locations. The various chapters examine how migration is experienced in relation to home and belonging and how both are formed in relationship to individual and collective migration. It follows the premise that forms and conditions of movement are highly divergent as well as they exist in relation to similarly divergent configurations of placement, or ‘being at home’. The books overall aim is to challenge the naturalisation of homes as origins and the romantisation of mobility as travel. Its concept considers home and migration in terms of a plurality of experiences, histories and constituencies and workings of institutional structures. The chapters attend to histories, geographies, practices, forms of experience and relations to power marking processes of uprootings and regroundings. Questions of migration and home are addressed using different methods, materials and definitions, such as autobiographical accounts, fictional narratives and popular media through the analysis of rules of law, government policies and theoretical texts. The book is divided into three themes: 1. the dwelling and movement of bodies 2. moving into and out of homes as forms of relatedness and 3. trans/national border crossings. Yet the division into different realms should be understood as the product of the interdependence between them. The first section investigates ways in which home and migration are embodied. The relationship between bodies, places and mobilities are rethought by regrounding these concepts in specific histories, locations and forms of displacement and emplacement. The first chapter articulates indigenous peoples’ relationship to home as one depending on the indivisible relation between the collective body and the land. The second section offers critical perspectives on how family, genealogy and kinship are implicated in the uprooting and regrounding of homes. Here discourses of familial homes and home as familiarity as sites of belonging are questioned and the relationship between queer sexuality and discourses of family and home are discussed. In Chapter 5 queer migrant subject’s reimaginations of childhood homes are established against seemingly more progressive narratives of coming out understood as moving out of the familial home. It is argued that queer migrant subjects refigure coming out in ways that do not necessarily involve loss of the familial home. The third section of the book examines how the movement of some bodies across national borders works to enforce and challenge ideas of community and belonging. It highlights how categorical inequalities such as class, race, gender and sexuality continue to operate as exclusionary devices sorting out who can and cannot be mobile. Chapter 11 investigates experiences of trafficking across EU borders. Testimonies of East European women formerly involved in sex work are analysed and it is stated that dominant narratives of trafficking turn EU Borders into scenes of crime and position women as victims of criminal networks. However, these models cannot account for the lived experiences of crossing borders, instead it is shown that although borders are shaped by policing they do not simply imply victimisation and the loss of agency in non-privileged subjects but also entail complex and varied negotiations with equally multiple outcomes.

Castells, Manuel
Toward a Sociology of the Network Society
Contemporary Sociology, 29(5):693-699
2000

Abstract:

In this article, Castells argues that the important technological changes that have taken place in the 21st century need to be analysed by virtue of a new sociology involving an innovative analysis of processes and structures of the “network society”. The latter refers to new social formations resulting from the development of information technologies. Castells states that the new technological paradigm contributes to the enactment of structural social change: firstly, globalisation allows for the possibility of working collectively on a global scale; secondly, dominant cultural manifestations become hypertexts; thirdly, the nation-state and the family as social organisational models are redefined along with new forms of political representation. The dominance of markets and networks upon society creates an institutional void that allows for the affirmation of collective primary identities along the lines of ethnicity, religion, locality and nation. Instead of forms of collective identification based on negotiated institutions, new communes are founded on the basis of shared values. The network society results from the combination of these transformations with innovative forms of social practice. Although networking in itself is not a new paradigm of interaction, the electronic network society is based on increased flexibility and adaptability. Additionally, though networks were unable to manage complexity beyond a critical size, Castells reckons that the internet contributes to coping with this issue more effectively. He argues for the necessity of an analysis of electronically-based networks going beyond notions such as centre and hierarchy in favour of other dimensions of change, such as the transformation of spatial structures. Moreover, there is the need of appreciating the importance of the subjective dimension of social action. Castells points out that this complexity must be explored through new sociological methodologies involving relevant theorising, computational literacy and sociological imagination.

Chatterton, Paul and Hollands, Robert
Urban nightscapes. Youth cultures, pleasure spaces and corporate power.
Routledge, London
2003

Wacquant, Loïc and Chauvin, Sébastien
Parias urbains: Ghetto, banlieues, État
Éditions la Découverte, Paris
2006

Cheesman, Tom
Polyglot Politics: Hip Hop in Germany
Debatte, 2(2):191-214
1998

Clandinin, D. Jean and Connelly, F. Michael
Personal Experience Methods
In Norman K. Denzin and Yvonna S. Lincoln, editor, Collecting and Interpreting Qualitative Materials
page 150-178.
Sage,
1998

Clifford, James
Diasporas
Cultural Anthropology, 4(3):302-338
1994

Abstract:

In this essay the author asks what is at stake, politically and intellectually, in contemporary invocations of diaspora. He discusses problems of defining a traveling term, under changing global conditions. How do diaspora discourses represent experiences of displacement, of constructing homes away from home? What experiences do they reject, replace, or marginalize? How do these discourses attain comparative scope while remaining rooted/routed in specific, discrepant histories? The essay also explores the political ambivalence, the utopic/dystopic tension, of diaspora visions that are always entangled in powerful global histories. Clifford argues that contemporary diasporic practices cannot be reduced to epiphenomena of the nation-state or of global capitalism. While defined and constrained by these structures, they also exceed and criticize them: old and new diasporas offer resources for emergent “postcolonialisms“. The essay focuses on recent articulations of diasporism from contemporary black Britain and from anti-Zionist Judaism: quests for nonexclusive practices of community, politics and cultural difference.

Cochrane, Allan and Jonas, Andrew
Reimagining Berlin: World City, National Capital or Ordinary Place?
European Urban and Regional Studies, 6(2):145-164
1999

Abstract:

Globalization has had a dramatic effect on the way in which we understand the operation of urban systems. Cities – or their elites – have increasingly sought to redefine and reimagine themselves through place marketing in ways which allow them to compete in the global marketplace. The ‘exceptional’ case of Berlin is explored in the context of regional and global restructuring. Berlin has been at the centre of dramatic changes over the last decadeand has been forced to reimagine itself in quite a different set of global understandings. A series of different – competing and sometimes complementary – imaginary Berlins are being constructed in the process of reinsertion into ‘normal’ capitalist urbanization. The relationships between property-led visions with Berlin at the heart of a wider Europe, visions of Berlin as a revived capital of a united Germany and the redefinition of Berlin as an ordinary place are considered. Each of these visions offers a different interpretation of Berlin. The paper critically assesses the extent to which it is possible to escape from pro-growth agendas in developing an urban future for the city and explores some of the implications of Berlin’s current development trajectory.

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