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Bibliography

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References
Skelton, Tracey and Valentine, Gill
Finding Oneself, Losing Oneself: The Lesbian and Gay ´Scene` as a Paradoxical Space
International Journal of Urban & Regional Research, 27(4):849-866
2003

Keywords: lesbian, gay, urban spaces, scene, identity, youth transition, paradoxical space

Abstract:

In recent years, geographers and urban sociologists have sought to map and understand the emergence and development of lesbian and gay spaces within the city — popularly dubbed 'the scene'. It is often asserted that the city is a space of sexual liberation and that specifically the 'scene' can play an important part in lesbian and gay men's identity formation and development. However, despite the range and richness of the academic literature on the production and emergence of lesbian and gay urban spaces, relatively little attention has been paid to the actual role of the scene in the 'coming out' process and the way young les-bians and gay men negotiate transitions to adulthood. This article addresses this neglect by drawing on empirical work with lesbians and gay men in the UK to explore what the scene has meant to them. In the first half of the article we focus on the positive roles that the scene can play in helping young people to find themselves as they make the transition from child-hood to adulthood. In the second half of the article we consider the risks that they can en-counter in the process. We conclude by reflecting on the scene as a paradoxical space, and on the implications of this research for the youth transitions and urban studies literatures, and for social policy.

Marcuse, Peter and van Kempen, Ronald
Of States and Cities. The Partitioning of Urban Space
Oxford University Press, Oxford
2002

van Lieshout, Maartje and Aarts, Noelle
Youth and Immigrants' Perspectives on Public Spaces
Space and Culture, 11(4):497-513
2008

Keywords: public space youth and immigrants frames influencing policy

Abstract:

This article reports on perceptions and practices of youth and immigrants concerning public spaces in the Netherlands. Policy formation does not necessarily incorporate their interests, even though they form large and growing demographic groups in Dutch society. Data were collected in semistructured conversations and group discussions and were analyzed using a set of concepts involving frames and framing. It is concluded that, despite the current context characterized by a decreasing availability of public space and an increasing use of virtual spaces via new media, public spaces remain important for both groups, especially for fulfilling important social functions such as the construction of identities. Furthermore, the interlocutors do not influence the design and use of public space via formal channels but, nevertheless, do have an effect via informal ways, by making use of informal networks, on one hand, and simply by being around, on the other.

Vermeulen, Hans and Perlmann, Joel
Immigrants, Schooling and Social Mobility: Does Culture Make a Difference?
Macmillan, Basingstoke
2000

Abstract:

Is the contemporary second generation on the road to the upward mobility and assimilation that in retrospect characterized the second generation of earlier immigrations? Or are the American economic context and the racial origins of today's immigration likely to result in a much less favorable future for the contemporary second generation? While several recent papers have argued for the latter position, we suspect they are too pessimistic. We briefly review the second generation upward mobility in the past and then turn to the crucial comparisons between past and present.

Crul, Maurice and Vermeulen, Hans
The Second Generation in Europe
The International Migration Review, 37(4):965-985
2003

Keywords: Europe, second generation, Turkish, Moroccan, postwar immigrants, education system, labor market, comparative research

Abstract:

Crul and Vermeulen present results of their research on the second generation of postwar immigrants in an internationally comparative perspective. When addressing the issue of national contexts, they focus primarily on policies and practices rather than on broad reaching national integration models. They analyse the integration process itself in the context of basic institutional arrangements such as education systems and the mechanisms for transition to the labour market. The authors compare the Turkish second generation to the first generation, the native population and, where possible given the data situation, also to Moroccans, Italians, former Yugoslavs and Portuguese. The Turkish second generation cohorts are compared in six European countries (Austria, Germany, Belgium, France, Netherlands and Sweden) in terms of education and labour market status. They also pay attention to internal differences within the Turkish emigrant populations. The differences are based on characteristics like ethnicity, first generation education levels and religion. The research is built upon typical categories of interest in the social sciences, focusing on structural and socio-economic dimensions. It works with general categories drawn upon in many studies of migrants, but the authors highlight the following interesting point: relying on the generated data, the second generation of the “Turkish Community (…) is performing less well in education today than the Moroccan young people.” (p.983). The reason for that seems to lie in the “more open and individualized Moroccan community” (p. 983), which seems to offer young people, especially girls, better possibilities with respect to their educational careers. The position of second generation Turks, Moroccans and other migrant groups varies widely between different European countries, which turns an adequate comparison into a challenge. Institutional contexts for migrants and the differences in educational systems in the named countries create significant distinctions. “In countries with more open educational systems, the second generation can reach higher, but fall deeper.” (p. 983).

Vertovec, Steven
Young Muslims in Keighley, West Yorkshire: Cultural Identity, Context and Community
In Steven Vertovec and Alisdair Rogers, editor, Muslim European youth
page 87-101.
Ashgate,
2004

Vertovec, Steven
Transnationalism and Identity
Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 27(4):573-582
2001

Keywords: Transnationalism identity migration

Abstract:

Transnationalism and identity are concepts that inherently call for juxtaposition. This is so because many peoples’ transnational networks of exchange and participation are grounded upon some perception of common identity; conversely, the identities of numerous individuals and groups of people are negotiated within social worlds that span more than one place. In this introductory article, the transnational perspective on migration studies first discussed, followed by some critiques and outstanding questions. The final section summarises points raised by the contributing authors of the main articles in this themed issue of JEMS, especially with regard to various ways transnational settings and dynamics affect the construction, negotiation and reproduction of identities.

Vigil, James Diego
Urban Violence and Street Gangs
The Annual Review of Anthropology, 32:225-242
2003

Abstract:

What causes urban street gang violence and how can we better understand the forces that shape this type of adolescent and youth behavior? For close to a century, social researchers have taken many different paths in attempting to unravel this complex question, especially in the context of large-scale immigrant adaptation to the city. In recent decades these researchers have relied primarily on data gathered from survey, quantitative approaches. This review traces some of these developments and outlines how frameworks of analysis have become more integrated and multi-dimensional, as ethnographic strategies have come into vogue again. For the last couple of decades, either a subculture of violence (i.e., the values and norms of the street gang embrace aggressive, violent behavior) or a routine activities (i.e., hanging around high crime areas with highly delinquent people) explanation dominated the discussion. To broaden and deepen the picture many other factors need to be considered, such as ecological, socioeconomic, sociocultural, and sociopsychological, particularly in light of the immigrant experience. A multiple marginality framework lends itself to a holistic strategy that examines linkages among the various factors, the actions and interactions between them, and notes the cumulative nature of urban street gang violence. Questions that are addressed in this more integrated framework are: Where did they settle? What jobs did they fill? How and why did their social practices and cultural values undergo transformations? When and in what ways did the social environment affect them? Finally, with whom did they interact? In sum, in highlighting the key themes and features of what constitutes urban street gang violence, the review suggests that the qualitative style that relies on holistic information adds important details to traditional quantitative data.

Vogt, Sabine
Subkultur Clubkultur? Sozioökonomische Netze und transkommerzielle Formen des Musikgebrauchs in der Clubkultur Berlins
In Lydia Grün and Frank Wiegang, editor, Musik Netz Werke Volume Dokumentation des 16. internationalen studentischen Symposiums für Musikwissenschaft in Berlin 2001
page 106-139.
Transcript,
2002

Vogt, Sabine
Clubräume - Freiräume: Musikalische Lebensentwürfe in den Jugendkulturen Berlins: Dissertation
Bärenreiter, Kassel
2005

Keywords: Berlin, youth culture, music culture

Abstract:

In this book Vogt looks at youth cultures in Berlin and the cultural infrastructure revolving around aspects such as musicians, clubs, phenomena like dance, sampling or djing and small businesses within the music scene. Adolescents and young adults dealing with music and media are portrayed in this study combining musicology and sociology. The author aims at showing their current expectations of life and practices, which she considers to be shaped by utopias as well as forms of self socialization. She examines how conflicts between utopias, economization and professionalization confronting the interviewees interplay. In her analysis Vogt concentrates on forms of understanding of pop music and the needs of adolescents and young adults involved in the music scene, rather than fixed or final explanations. She follows questions such as how young adult's musical orientation is informed and what kind of impact their (familial) environments have. Here she shows less interest in clubs, but concentrates on childhood memories regarding music, first experiences regarding music and differences in female and male upbringing and socialization. While combining aspects of sociology as well as musicology she analyzes the interviewees connections to music for example dance or djing and their different meanings as well as other forms of making music. Vogt elaborates on the origins of different music styles such as hip hop or punk and the scenes revolving around them. Moreover she focuses on the status and enabling processes of self realization such music styles and scenes have in the lives of youth involved in them. Furthermore Vogt discusses aspects of cultural industry, everyday culture and the term culture on the whole.

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