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Bibliography

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References
Bennett, Andy
Researching youth culture and popular music: a methodological critique
British Journal of Sociology, 53(3):451-466
2002

Keywords: youth culture, research methods, positionality, insider knowledge

Abstract:

Andy Bennett’s text is concerned with looking at the connections between youth culture and popular music and critically analyzing qualitative research methods. He splits the text into sections, with the first half concentrating on early research methods, criticizing the earlier use of theories of cultural Marxism and the dismissal of empirical research. Previous attempts of trying to map stylistic responses with socio-economic factors gave an inaccurate representation of youth culture, he claims. The second part of the article continues to look at how there has been a naive approach to the use of ‘insider knowledge’ which neglects issues such as negotiating access to the field and ethical codes. Bennett also highlights issues of positionality of the researcher and opens up the debate of ‘insider ‘or ‘outsider’. Using the examples of Cohen and Finnegan, he highlights how both being an insider and outsider of a scene can have an impact on what type of data is produced. He urges more reflection on the part of the researcher and uses the examples of some works of Sarah Thornton and Jeffrey Jensen Arnett, with Thornton allegedly lacking reflexivity concerning her own experiences, and Arnett being unable to move beyond the club and place his subject within the wider context of their ‘day-to-day’ lives. He discusses further the newer research methods of using ‘insider knowledge’ and he is concerned with the ‘uncritical acceptance’ of this type of methodology as a tool to gather data. However, he weighs up both the pros and cons of ‘insider knowledge’ and extends the discussion by looking at the conflict between the ‘researcher’ and the ‘researched’ and the insider/the researcher. There are ‘unavoidable’ barriers that present themselves with ‘insider knowledge’, it is advised that researchers should consider the nature of their role very carefully and to be conscious of how they are perceived by their subjects. In his conclusion Bennett asks researchers to progress beyond theoretical abstraction and to critically reflect on the research process itself.

Bennett, Andy , Shark, Barry and Toynbee, Jason
The popular music studies reader
Routledge, London
2008

Abstract:

The Popular Music Studies Reader maps the changing nature of popular music over the last decade and considers how popular music studies has expanded and developed to deal with these changes. Articles discuss the increasing participation of women in the industry and the changing role of gender and sexuality in popular music, the role of new technologies, especially in production and distribution, and the changing nature of the relationship between music production and consumption. The Popular Music Studies Readerplaces popular music in its cultural context, looks at the significance of popular music in our everyday lives, and examines the global nature of the music industry.

Beriss, David
Black Skins, French Voices: Caribbean Ethnicity and Activism in Urban France
of Westview Case Studies in Anthropology
Westview Press, Boulder
2007

Best, Ulrich and Gebhardt, Dirk
Ghetto-Diskurse: Geographie der Stigmatisierung in Marseille und Berlin
Volume 24 of Praxis Kultur- und Sozialgeographie
Audiovisuelles Zentrum der Univ. Potsdam, Potsdam
2001

Keywords: Marseille Berlin Segregation <Soziologie>


Bhardwaj, Anita
Growing Young, Asian and Female in Britain: A Report on Self-harm and Suicide: Women and Mental Health
Feminist Review, (68):52-67
0

Keywords: young Asian women, suicide, self-harm, mental health, ethnicity, London

Abstract:

Anita Bhardwaj’s report is a summary of the Newham Asian Women’s Project, ‘Growing up Young, Asian and Female in Britain’ (1998). The voluntary sector organization established in 1987 in East London works in a context where Asian women between the ages of 15-35 are two to three times more vulnerable to suicide and self-harm than their non-Asian counterparts. The project works with Asian women who experience domestic violence and mental distress. Bhardwaj looks at how the South Asian ‘community’ is viewed both internally and externally. External definitions of cultural homogeneity and ascription of categories move the attention away from the self-descriptions of members. Internally, there is a need to acknowledge the heterogeneity of Asian culture and community dynamics. For example certain terms, such as ‘sharam’ (shame) and ‘izzat’ (honour) embody powerful cultural judgments, leading to women either being included in or ostracized from their families. There are many reasons why young Asian women self-harm, such as matrimonial roles, duty (izzat) and the pressure of being the bearers of community and family honour. External support, such as service interventions, are not really accepted in Asian families. It is supposed that South Asians have nurtured their own solidarity and community structures in the face of a hostile and racist Britain. Self-harm becomes an option for many young women in order to regain a sense of control in their lives. However, participants in the research felt that the service response was inadequate. Bhardwaj addresses issues such as the lack of knowledge among professionals and breaches of confidentiality by doctors. She advises voluntary sector agencies to grant a greater role to community groups in order to contribute to the planning and commissioning of services, give more training to primary care staff on issues such as confidentiality and perception of GP service,s and to set up transcultural counseling services in schools and colleges. Bhardwaj cautions not to view the South Asian culture as a ‘bad’ culture or aim for the demise of the family structure; however not challenging the unequal practices would be an insult to the feminists who have fought discriminatory practices. Although the report has been successful in terms of impacting policies and services, it is claimed, the challenge is to ensure that the commitment of resources does not diminish both locally and nationally.

Bhattacharyya, Gargi
Tales of dark-skinned women. Race, gender and global culture
UCL Press, London
1998

Abstract:

Exploring the way race and gender are portrayed in popular culture, this text focuses on the representation of black women. It incorporates a discussion of the politics of representation in Britain and North America, and the shift from negative stereotypes to positive images to postmodern knowingness. The author pays particular attention to the reach of various race/gender literacies, most notably the impact of North American racial discourse on British conceptions of Asian and Afro-Caribbean femininity.

Blackman, Shane
Youth Subcultural Theory: A Critical Engagement with the Concept, its Origins and Politics, from the Chicago School to Postmodernism
Journal of Youth Studies, 8(1):1-20
2005

Abstract:

In this article, Blackman suggests that the postmodernist understanding of youth subculture relies on a determinist interpretation of the Centre for Contemporary Cultural Studies (CCCS) positions, which denies the immense diversity in the CCCS theorization that draws on Barthes, Gramsci, Althusser, Levi-Strauss and Lacan. The author critically examines the development of postmodern subcultural theory, which is premised on the work of three key social theorists: Max Weber, Jean Baudrillard and Michel Maffesoli. Postmodernists have extracted ideas from these thinkers and combined them to argue against what is described as CCCS theoretical orthodoxy and also to construct new terms such as neo-tribe and lifestyle to replace the concept of subculture. Blackman suggests that postmodernism's reluctance to focus on social structure promotes an individualistic understanding of the social. The work of the Chicago School and the CCCS gave priority to the collective, whereas postmodern subcultural writing is preoccupied with the individual, resulting in a weak understanding of the group context of youth cultural practices. The postmodern interventions offer some useful critical insights, but their new theorization lacks substance and critical application to young people's social, economic and cultural realities. Furthermore, Blackman argues that under postmodern analysis, subculture returns to a conservative Mertonian interpretation of individual adaptation that corresponds to recent political neo-liberal economic and social policies. He suggests that a contradiction is apparent between the postmodern dismissal of the CCCS model of resistance and their own argument that youth are engaged in creative and emancipatory activities.

Blum, Alan
Scenes
In Janine Marchessault and Will Straw, editor, Scenes and the City: Special Issue of Public of Cities/Scenes
page 7-36.
2002

Keywords: scenes, grammar of scene, urbanity, social phenomenon, socialization

Abstract:

In his article, Alan Blum develops a theory of scenes seen as particular urban social phenomena. He suggests looking at the scene as a social formation rather seeing it simply as an undefined shared space or as an opportunity for dialogue. According to Blum, scenes and cities are inevitably connected to each other. Scenes are generally identified with cities’ nightlife activities. Blum elaborates a ‘grammar of scenes’ and draws up different settings of scenes in urban space. He discusses eight different aspects of scenes: Regularity, extensiveness, mortality, collectivization, theatricality, and transgression, spectacle, private and public / private in public. Blum deems the most significant characteristics of scenes their voluntariness, their temporal, non-obligatory character, and the excitement of being with and showing oneself to strangers in a (semi-) public space, allowing for practices of seeing and being seen seeing. Cities depend, according Blum, on the presence of scenes. The variety, amount and quality of scenes in a city are a reflection of the creativity of the city and its inhabitants. To sum up, people choose their scenes while the process of socializing is linked to the significant concept and special codes of scenes in urban context.

Body-Gendrot, Sophie
Living apart or together with our differences? French cities at a crossroads
Ethnicities, 2(3):367-385
2002

Keywords: citizenship discrimination ethnicization immigrants policies of repression racism risk society urban violence youth peril

Abstract:

The traditional approaches of governments to citizenship, nationality and social relations have become obsolete or unfit in the face of the demands of more heterogeneous, multicultural and complex societies. This article argues that, in France, the persistence of xenophobic and neocolonialist attitudes and the strong belief that equal treatment for all is an adequate response have prevented state institutions from vigorously tackling discriminations with appropriate policies. Despite the growing ethnicization of social relations at work, school and in the neighbourhoods, the struggle against social inequality still dominates the public debate, thereby neglecting the specific harms suffered by long-settled postcolonial immigrants and their children. The latter have become the easy scapegoats of a perceived general societal malaise, and for this they are easily criminalized. The article argues that current timid institutional innovations observed here and there in France will only gain force if civil society becomes more open to negotiations about rights to the city and more tolerant of the expression of ethnic differences in public space.

Bonechi, Olivia
Formes de mobilisation juvénile dans les quartiers des "banlieues difficiles" en Italie et en France
2004

Keywords: Italien Stadtteil Marginalität Jugend Unterprivilegierung Soziales Engagement Frankreich


Boogarts, Simone
Claiming Your Place at Night: Turkish Dance Parties in The Netherlands
Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 34(8):1283-1300
0

Keywords: Ethnic minority youth, clubbing, youth culture, Amsterdam, Rotterdam, Turkish youth

Abstract:

Simone Boogarts text explores the growth of the Turkish clubbing scene in the Netherlands, concentrating on Amsterdam and Rotterdam as city contexts. She treats the Turkish-Dutch clubbers as ‘consumers’ in a market, where they can choose to go to different club nights according to the different musical styles being played. Both cities have observed a growth in ‘ethno-parties’ in Dutch nightlife. However, feelings of ambivalence seem to be growing from not only from club owners, but also politicians, who believe there may be a growth of ‘party apartheid’. However, the Turkish-Dutch seem to feel that the creation of such clubbing spaces allows them to dance to their favourite music and to ‘interact with co-ethnics’. Boogarts makes the case that this scene is borne out of a need for cultural expression and because of the lack of cultural representation and discrimination in mainstream nightlife. Issues of access and door policy have lead to the Turkish-Dutch to feel alienated from the mainstream clubbing scene. Turkish party organizations have begun to operate successfully in a newly created market, carefully engineering their style of music programming as well as hosting their ‘ethno-parties’ in mainstream clubs. Boogarts speaks of the Dutch-Turkish as consumers and examines three different phases to demonstrate how and why they make a choice for the Turkish clubbing scene. She names these three phases as follows: i) choosing your party, ii) entering the party, and iii) at the party. The second half of the text deals with these phases in this order and what other matters the consumers are confronted with both outside of the party and inside. Boogart finally concludes her piece by arguing that the Turkish party planners and the audiences in mainstream nightlife are involved in processes of politics of recognition and acceptance.

Boomkens, Rene
Global sounds and local audiences: The coming of age of pop music
European Journal of Cultural Studies, 7(1):5-7
2004

Keywords: pop music, rock, youth, popular culture, American, British, globalization

Abstract:

This article describes pop music as an expression of cultural globalisation. In the first half of the article Boomkens discusses the increasing plurality of pop and rock music: for example, its shifts from considering only youth to all ages as its audience and from Anglo-American culture to new local genres (e.g. electronic dance music in Germany) or genre versions (e.g. Turkish disco, Scandinavian heavy metal). In the second half of the article the author highlights the changing roles of global pop music, based on contributions or case studies that focus on this issue. First, Juliana Snapper looks at Hip Hop turntablism and the global turntablism network. Second, Jaap Kooijman reflects on the image of America presented in George Michael’s music video for his song ‘Outside’. The status of pop music in Britain since the 1960s is the subject of Simon Frith’s article. The following contribution, in which Sarah Louise Baker observes the bedroom culture of Australian pre-teen pop music fans, shows how the girls experiment with self-expression and gendered/cultural identity through their creative exploration of pop music. Finally, Keith Kahn-Harris concludes by questioning the political relevance of youth music scenes, using the example of the black metal scene and its racist tendencies.

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