. .


Alle :: A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, J, K, L, M, N, O, Ö, P, R, S, T, U, V, W, Y, Z 
Alle :: Eade, ... , Ehrkamp, Eick, El Masrar, ... , Evans 
Eade, John
Living the Global City: Globalization as Local Process
Routledge, New York


Politicians and academics alike have made globalization the key reference point for interpreting the 1990s. For many, globalization threatens both community and the nation-state. It appears to represent forces beyond human control. Living the Global City documents globalization's impact on everyday lives by drawing on research rather than rhetoric, which lends the book a very different perspective.

Echchaibi, Nabil
We Are French Too, but Different: Radio, Music and the Articulation of Difference Among Young North Africans in France
International Communication Gazette, 63(4):295-310


In this article, Echchaibi points to the role of radio and music in the identity making of North African youth in France during the 1990s, by arguing that migrant media allow for the production of counter-hegemonic identities. For him, migrants recognise themselves neither in French assimilation and integration discourses nor in pro-Arab ethnic claims. On the contrary, syncretic forms of belongings are elaborated, and thus the study of migrant media contributes to the understanding of those flexible transnational identities. On the one hand, the author substantiates his theoretical approach with a critique of the French ideology of assimilation, an ideology that people in “diaspora” (296) consider monolithic. On the other hand, he states that migrants do not attempt to reproduce images of their homeland or reinvigorate their ethnic belonging in the new life context. Rather, the article underlines that migrants reconfigure cultural belonging by appropriating several heritages in a “cosmopolitan fashion” (ibid.). In support of his argument, Echchaibi provides a set of concepts intended to shed light on the deliberate aspects of cultural hybridity and on the negotiation of cross-cultural identities. By drawing mainly on the work of Gilroy (1987), Hannerz (1990) and sociologists of migrations and media, he points out that the analysis of migrant media can reveal the processes of “cultural translation” in contexts of reterritorialisation (297). The cornerstone of his argument is that French migrants are marginalised by the mainstream media industry, represented in this case mostly by national institutions active in media funding. Echchaibi believes that the negative perception of migrants as a socio-economic problem entails their invisibility from mainstream media. This is the reason why he calls for a deeper study of media in terms of the displacement of people and cultures in order to account for more dynamic definitions of belongings: there is need for a deeper understanding of how migrants receive, represent and produce media (298). Echchaibi approaches his case study, the French context, by briefly retracing the history of North African migrations to the country during the 20th Century. For him, the controversial French colonial and post-colonial history has partially enabled discriminating perceptions of migrants. Additionally, French policies seem to conflate monolithic representations of citizenship, culture and national identity by excluding migrants from public discourses. French television until the 1980s was largely run by the public sector and therefore, Echchaibi says, dominated by the republican model marginalising migrant cultural production. Moreover, mainstream television fiction depicts migrants as responsible for social troubles. Although national cultural policies aim at improving cultural integration, the author argues that they often result from uncritical considerations of what integration ought to be. By the same token, only a few programmes by and for migrants were offered by French media during the 1980s and 1990s, but they mostly disappeared after a few years of programming. This forced immigrant youth to look for alternatives like Arabic radio stations and transnational channels. According to Echchaibi, hip hop represents the counter-hegemonic potential of migrant cultural products well, by merging American black culture and traditional Algerian rai into an original product. Although hip hop is often oriented towards stereotypical images of the ghetto and towards commercialisation (thus possibly toward a decreasing political relevance), it also conveys a positive message of hybrid identifications. The author sheds light on the dimension of protest in French hip hop that calls for the recognition of migrants' flexible yet distinctive cultural identities as opposed to the assimilation model. By producing and consuming migrant media, people struggle against negative social representations inherent in the dominant republican model. An ethnographic analysis of media should take into account the peculiarity of migrant cultural production and its underlying political potential.

Eckardt, Frank
Soziologie der Stadt
aus Einsichten
Transcript-Verl., Bielefeld

Eckardt, Frank und Hassenpflug, Dieter
Consumption and the Post-Industrial City
Peter Lang Publishers, Frankfurt/New York


The consequences of the industrial transition with regard to its social, political and architectural effects are the issue of this book. Today, the basis of urban growth lies more in the hands of those who consume and therefore organize their social potential. As the consumption city is not simply one new industry that comes next, the mixture of different life styles is the necessary matrix for revitalization of urban life. Difference and diversity are challenging manifold the management of this transition, wherefore no blue print for the urban regeneration can be produced. Consumption valorizes the cultural capital of every place and transmits it to the market. Drawing on the unique history of the place, the diversification of the post-industrial city requires a specific approach addressing the local in its characteristic potentials and threats.

Edwards, Elizabeth
The visual sense: A cultural reader
Berg, Oxford

Schlüsselwörter: Visual perception Visual communication Cross-cultural studies Art and society Visuelle Medien Kultur Geschichte Aufsatzsammlung Bild

Ehrkamp, Patricia
Placing Identities: Transnational Practices and Local Attachments of Turkish Immigrants in Germany
Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 31(2):345-364

Schlüsselwörter: Turkish Immigrants Germany Place Identity Transnational Belonging


This paper examines the ways that Turkish immigrants create places of belonging in a German city. I suggest that transnational ties enable immigrants to forge local attachments through the production of place. Drawing on a neighbourhood case-study of Duisburg-Marxloh, I show how immigrants’ transnational ties and practices visibly transform their current place of residence through transnational consumption, mass media, and the establishment of communal places such as mosques and teahouses that also contribute to conflicts between groups. Their placing of identities also forms an engagement with the receiving society, as immigrants are actively carving out belonging in the face of often hostile attitudes from German residents. Viewing immigrants’ attachments from the perspective of places they create teases out the complexities of multiple and sometimes conflicting attachments of contemporary migrants, and allows for an understanding of transnational ties and engagement with the host society as complementary rather than contradictory.

Eick, Volker
New Strategies of Policing the Poor: Berlin's Neoliberal Security System
Policing and Society, 13(4):365-379

Schlüsselwörter: Community exclusion Governance Police public space Private security agencies Workfare.


Inner-city public space has gained a central role in the process of neo-liberal urban restructuring. The profit-orientated revalorization of selected urban spaces is flanked by campaigns for cleanliness and order. Police forces focus their activities on marginalized groups, organizing themselves into “operations” or “special task forces” against homeless people, punks, (foreign) youths and drug addicts. Some of them are working because of the demands of shopkeepers in inner city areas. Private security agencies are conquering the public space as a new field of activity. They are part of a privatizing process of and within German cities. Public-private partnerships are common. We observe a strategy of increasingly commercialized exclusion of parts of the urban population. Due to growing unemployment rates, police and private security agencies are accompanied by new “colleagues” working in informal control agencies: long-term unemployed and welfare recipients. Those control agencies train their “customers” in one-year courses to expel marginalized groups. Unlike private security agencies and police, their activities are seen as inclusion strategies to integrate the long-term unemployed and to sustain so-called “deprived areas”. Mainly originating from the new social movements of the early 1970s, their former critical attitude towards the state has given way to a new model of governance. Nonprofit organizations today are part of a community-based system of control and exclusion that forces the poor to combat the poor.

El Masrar, Sineb
Muslim Girls. Wer wir sind, wie wir leben.
Eichborn, Frankfurt am Main

Schlüsselwörter: Muslim women, (neo-)racist stereotypes, social injustice in Germany


In this book El Masrar discusses dominant perceptions and discourses on German Muslim women and Muslim women in Germany. She argues that public images of Muslim women do not represent Muslim women’s realities of life. The author elaborates on and criticises (neo-)racist stereotypes German Muslim women and Muslim women in Germany are confronted with by the majority society. At the same time El Masrar challenges dominant perceptions of Muslims in Germany as homogenous oppressed group of victims revolving around issues of honour killings, the coercion to wear headscarves, forced marriages and other generalising stereotypes. The author draws on scholarly research in the field of statistics, migration studies and oral histories including her own to refute (neo-) racist images of Muslims. Furthermore she problematises a general underestimation of German Muslim women and Muslim women in Germany for example in the educational system as well as on the labour market. The author concludes that the hindered circumstances confronting Muslim women mark them. El Masrar points out that there is still much to be done in Germany regarding equal opportunities on the labour market, the educational system, representation in the media and health care. She demands that Muslims should be acknowledged as heterogeneous, diverse and competent while advocating an open minded political consciousness among people living together in Germany.

Källtorp, O. , Elander, I. , Ericsson, O. und Franzén, M.
Cities in Transformation-Transformation in Cities. Social and Symbolic Change of Urban Space
Avebury, Aldershot

Eldering, Lotty und Knorth, Erik J.
Marginalization of Immigrant Youth and Risk Factors in Their Everyday Lives: The European Experience
Child & Youth Care Forum, 27(3):153-169

Schlüsselwörter: immigrant youth, immigration debate, inequality, marginalization, micro-macro links, otherness


In this article the marginalization of immigrant youth in Europe and the risk factors they face in daily life are described. We conclude that immigrant youth are more at risk than native youth, but that there is considerable variation among immigrant groups with Maghrebian youth running the highest risks of becoming marginalized. The article depicts the problems immigrant families in Northwest Europe, particularly those from Mediterranean countries, are confronted with in the first period after immigration. Immigrant families appear to be in a state of disharmony upon their arrival in the new country as family members have to accommodate to each other again. Immigrant families with a traditional role pattern are less competent in guiding their children in the acculturation process after immigration than are egalitarian families. Differences between parents and children in acculturation level cause many conflicts, particularly concerning schooling, going out with friends, and arranged marriages.

Evans, Graeme
Hard-branding the cultural city - from Prado to Prada
International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 27(2):417-440

Schlüsselwörter: city, culture, diversity, art industry, consumption, branding, gentrification


The industrial 'Event City', host to World Fair, sporting, cultural and ceremonial mega-event, has been transformed in its late-capitalist form into the 'City as Event'– from the all year round festival city to the ubiquitous 'Cities of Culture'. These self-styled culture cities now look to the contemporary art museum and cultural district to provide a cosmopolitan edge to their promotional icons and associations, with Art now acknowledged as an 'industry'. Cities worldwide, irrespective of their indigenous culture and heritage (e.g. Guggenheim Bilbao, Rio et al.), are thus emulating the brand reinforcement witnessed in leisure and entertainment products and themed experiences, which themselves have entered the retail environment as prime urban consumption spaces. The paper critiques this evolution of the city of culture and the branded art facility in terms of their form and function, arguing that form has followed re-gional funding, and that culture-led regeneration and place-making now mirrors the product branding of Nike and Sony, vying with them for consumer and political attention through the use of star architecture and retail strategies that belie their public good/realm and cultural distinctions. The cost of these flagships and cultural strategies, the paper concludes, is borne in terms of cultural diversity and production versus consumption and mediation; in community cultural activity and amenity; and by those who do not have a stake in the gentrification process which attaches to these globalized grands projets

Evans, David
Michel Maffesoli´s sociology of modernity and postmodernity: An introduction and critical assessment
The Sociological Review, 25(2):220-243


This article introduces and criticises Michel Maffesoli's attempt to formulate a post-modern sociology for post-modern times. While arguing that Maffesoli's sociology is suggestive and insightful about many aspects and features of late-modern life this article, nonetheless, questions whether Maffesoli's approach should be accepted as a fruitful sociological paradigm which others should take up uncritically. Moreover, it will be argued that Maffesoli's approach is an ultimately incoherent and one-sided approach to studying the `postmodern condition' in that it does not escape the problem of `performative contradiction' identified by the likes of Habermas, Giddens and Touraine. That is to say, Maffesoli has produced a one-sided and flattened out image of modernity that cannot account for the possibility of social and political critique.