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Bibliographie

Autor:  
Alle :: A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, J, K, L, M, N, O, Ö, P, R, S, T, U, V, W, Y, Z 
Alle :: MacRae, ... , Mazzei, McCall, McCann, ... , Muggleton 
Referenzen
MacRae, Rhoda
Notions of ´Us and Them`: Makers of Stratification in Clubbing Lifestyles
Journal of Youth Studies, 7(1):55-71
2004

Schlüsselwörter: clubculture, delinquency, feminism and youth culture, new ethnicities, postmodernism, post-subculture, subculture

Zusammenfassung:

This article surveys the field of British youth cultural analysis since the development in the 1950s of a so-called specific identity and distinctive set of experiences for young people. It outlines the main trajectories of sociological research,from the early positing of a classless youth culture,via various investigations into delinquent solutions,through to the establishment within a cultural studies discipline of a ‘new wave of subcultural theory’in the 1970s.It also examines the challenges to this orthodoxy in an era of ‘new times’ and the recent return to sociology and ethnographic fieldwork. In so doing the article traces the main theoretical traditions from the initial influence of American subcultural theory, through symbolic interactionism and the reinvention of the problem-solving approach in the language of Marxism, to how the field has recently been reconstituted upon the terrain of ‘post-subcultural studies’. It concludes by critiquing some current calls for the replacement of the subculture concept and argues that, while reports of the death of subculture are greatly exaggerated, the continued use of this concept in future research is perhaps likely to emphasise certain CCCS connotations of group coherence, consistency and commitment in addition to the postmodern traits of flux,fluidity and hybridization that are seemingly constitutive of certain youth cultural forms and activities in the new millennium.

Maffesoli, Michel
The time of the tribes: The decline of individualism in mass society
Sage, London
1. publ. Edition
1996

Schlüsselwörter: youth, France, tribes, collective belonging, networks

Zusammenfassung:

In this book, Maffesoli proposes a reading of sociality and contends that the ideology of individualism has spread in social sciences and public debates regarding mass society. The Social subjects of his analysis are popular classes that are unconsciously embedded in consumer culture that he distinguishes from the historically conscious working class. To him, post-modern society witnesses the formation of new forms of sociality, namely small groups here defined as “tribes”. In the first chapter of the book, the author criticises the analytical value of individualism by questioning its social existence through an a contrario procedure: through a series of examples of contemporary social life, he attests to the existence of forms of sociality based on solidarity and Dionysian emotionality. The crucial feature of post-modern sociality, however, is that it cannot be scrutinised via instrumental and rationalist thinking; it is informal. In the second chapter, Maffesoli points out that social effervescence appears in mass society in several movements, mainly religious, and manifests itself as a form of power (puissance). The emotional character is crucial to Maffesoli’s definition of tribal sociality. In the third part of the book, the author provides a sociological description of the term tribe, i.e. a group of people recognising itself on the basis of shared imaginaries, sense of belonging and codes of distinction. Tribes exist within mass society and revolve around notions of proximity between members and the existence of networks. However, networks are not necessarily stable but can be ephemerally constituted by different participants. According to Maffesoli, tribes gather in specific social spaces, however the engagement with space is not a precondition of the existence of tribal forms of sociality. Instead of referring to a common past, tribes tend to constitute themselves via the construction of meanings based on shared values, in order to nurture a mystical sense of collective belonging. In this context, single members do not count as individuals but as participants of the group. By providing a socio-historical analysis, Maffesoli argues that tribes are actualisations of an archaic past, where sociality revolved around the constitution of communities.

Majumdar, Anamika
Researching South Asian Women’s Experiences of Marriage: Resisting Stereotypes through an Exploration of ‘Space’ and ‘Embodiment’
Feminism Psychology, 17:316
2007

Schlüsselwörter: South Asian Women, marriages, stereotypes, space, embodiment, intimacy, everyday life

Zusammenfassung:

Anamika Majumdar reviews existing literature on South Asian Women’s marriage experiences. She splits up the paper in to two sections, firstly arguing how existing literature reinforces current stereotypes of South Asian women as being passive and supporting the dichotomy of being torn between tradition and modernity. The second section argues for the need to explore the experiences of South Asian women’s experiences through an exploration of ‘space’ and ‘embodiment’. By focusing on the binary construction of tradition and modernity, it fails to reflect on the diversity of practices and beliefs in relation to marriage. Therefore, the exploration of lived experiences in particular spaces may highlight ways of being that have never been explored. Referring to her own research, Majumdar writes about the importance of using a ‘life history approach’, in order to explore how participants experience embodiment and sexuality in relation to material places and spaces they occupy through their lives. She argues that situating emotional belongings and intimacy in spaces and factors such as housing, the areas people reside in and perform routines of everyday life, have a significant effect on intimate life. By looking at material living spaces and embodiment, it becomes possible to reflect on the diversity of the women’s lives that may not conform to existing stereotypes.

Malbon, Ben
Clubbing: Dancing, Ecstasy and Vitality
Routledge, New York
1999

Zusammenfassung:

Clubbing: dancing, ecstasy and vitality is a study of the cultures and spaces of clubbing based on Ben Malbon’s PhD research, combining first-hand accounts with a comprehensive review of clubbing in Britain in the late 1990s. The book seeks to address the influence of the clubbers themselves upon the clubbing experience, as well as the role played by music and dancing in transforming spaces and human experiences. Finally, it posits clubbing as a form of ‘play’ that is significant for shaping the identities of clubbers. Part one, ‘The beginnings’, introduces the topic by offering a review of clubbing in Britain in the 1990s. The scale of the industry is demonstrated with the help of statistics concerning its growth and the financial revenue attached to it. It is also positioned in relation to social class and geographical variation. The section concludes with three academic starting points for the study: the concepts of ‘play’, consumption and performativity. Part two, ‘The night out’, is structured along the narrative of a night out, beginning with club entry and finishing at the end of the night. Based on participant observation and interviews, it examines the cultures, spaces and mediations that ‘produce’ the clubbing experience: identity constructs formed by the clubbers themselves, the relationship between music and crowds, the role played by recreational drugs such as ecstasy and finally, an analysis of the ‘playful vitality’ engendered through the experience of clubbing, a concept that is the focus of the book’s main argument. Part three, ‘Reflections’, concludes by applying the evidence presented in the second section to the key concepts posited in the first. Malbon argues that clubbing should not be demonized as a form of hedonism, but that it provides an insight into human conceptualizations of social interactions, community and play.

Malkki, Liisa
National Geographic: The Rooting of Peoples and the Territorialization of National Identity among Scholars and Refugees
Cultural Anthropology, 7(1):24–44
1992

Schlüsselwörter: Refugees, Identity, Territorialisation, Roots, Nation, Culture

Zusammenfassung:

Liisa Malkki’s text deals with the idea of the rooting of people and wants to rethink this idea in relation to identity and territory. She concerns herself with the placement of refugees in what she calls the ‘national order of things’ and with the consequences of territorialising concepts of identity for people who appear to be ‘uprooted’. To understand what it means to be uprooted in the contemporary world, Malkki discusses the idea of the nation as an historical construct. Drawing upon Herder and Gellner’s definition of nations as ethnological units segmented on the ground, she discusses the ways in which links between territory and socio-cultural groups are naturalised. ‘Real’ nations or ‘world nations’ are marked on maps which clearly define the spatial partitioning of territory, a visual device of territorialisation. Tree and botanical metaphors, according to Malkki, have been used in many nationalist discourses. People usually think of themselves as being rooted in a place and are invited to take their identity from that rootedness. Sedentarism, Malkki argues, territorialises identities and in turn views territorial displacement as pathological. ‘Uprootedness’ becomes an indicator of a loss of ‘moral’ and ‘emotional bearings’ and can threaten to ‘denature’ national and cultural identities. She refers to her field work, where she studied two groups of Hutu refugees inhabiting two different settings in Tanzania, an isolated refugee camp and a town. Her study revealed radical differences in the meaning ascribed to national identity, exile and being a refugee. Malkki argues the need for a new “sociology of displacement” and a new “nomadology”. She deems it important to remember that there are numerous ways people connect to places through living in, remembering, and imagining them.

Mandel, Ruth
Cosmopolitan Anxieties: Turkish Challenges to Citizenship and Belonging in Germany
Duke University Press,
2008

Zusammenfassung:

In Cosmopolitan Anxieties, Ruth Mandel explores Germany’s relation to the more than two million Turkish immigrants and their descendants living within its borders. Based on her two decades of ethnographic research in Berlin, she argues that Germany’s reactions to the postwar Turkish diaspora have been charged, inconsistent, and resonant of past problematic encounters with a Jewish “other.” Mandel examines the tensions in Germany between race-based ideologies of blood and belonging on the one hand and ambitions of multicultural tolerance and cosmopolitanism on the other. She does so by juxtaposing the experiences of Turkish immigrants, Jews, and “ethnic Germans” in relation to issues including Islam, Germany’s Nazi past, and its radically altered position as a unified country in the post–Cold War era. Mandel explains that within Germany the popular understanding of what it means to be German is often conflated with citizenship, so that a German citizen of Turkish background can never be a “real German.” This conflation of blood and citizenship was dramatically illustrated when, during the 1990s, nearly two million “ethnic Germans” from Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union arrived in Germany with a legal and social status far superior to that of “Turks” who had lived in the country for decades. Mandel analyzes how representations of Turkish difference are appropriated or rejected by Turks living in Germany; how subsequent generations of Turkish immigrants are exploring new configurations of identity and citizenship through literature, film, hip-hop, and fashion; and how migrants returning to Turkey find themselves fundamentally changed by their experiences in Germany. She maintains that until difference is accepted as unproblematic, there will continue to be serious tension regarding resident foreigners, despite recurrent attempts to realize a more inclusive and “demotic” cosmopolitan vision of Germany.

Marchessault, Janine und Straw, Will
Cities/Scenes
Public, (22/23)
2001

Marcus, George E.
Rereading Cultural Anthropology
Duke University Press,
1992

Zusammenfassung:

During its first six years (1986–1991), the journal Cultural Anthropology provided a unique forum for registering the lively traffic between anthropology and the emergent arena of cultural studies. The nineteen essays collected in Rereading Cultural Anthropology, all of which originally appeared in the journal, capture the range of approaches, internal critiques, and new questions that have characterized the study of anthropology in the 1980s, and which set the agenda for the present. Drawing together work by both younger and well-established scholars, this volume reveals various influences in the remaking of traditions of ethnographic work in anthropology; feminist studies, poststructuralism, cultural critiques, and disciplinary challenges to established boundaries between the social sciences and humanities. Moving from critiques of anthropological representation and practices to modes of political awareness and experiments in writing, this collection offers systematic access to what is now understood to be a fundamental shift (still ongoing) in anthropology toward engagement with the broader interdisciplinary stream of cultural studies.

Marcuse, Peter
The Shifting Meaning of the Black Ghetto in the United States
In Peter Marcuse und Ronald van Kempen, Editor, Of States and Cities
Seite 109-142.
Oxford University Press,
2002

Marcuse, Peter und van Kempen, Ronald
Of States and Cities. The Partitioning of Urban Space
Oxford University Press, Oxford
2002

Marlière, Éric
Les Jeunes et la Discotheque:Entre Fetes Urbaines et Violences Ritualisees.
Éditions du Cygne, Paris
2011

Masclet, Olivier
Du "bastion" au "ghetto": Le communisme municipal en butte à l’immigration
Actes de la recherche en sciences sociales, 4(159):10-25
2005

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