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Alle :: A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, J, K, L, M, N, O, Ö, P, R, S, T, U, V, W, Y, Z 
Alle :: Rai, ... , Rief, Riegel, Robbins, ... , Rumbaut 
Desai, Jigna , Dudrah, Rajinder und Rai, Amit
Bollywood Audiences: Editorial
South Asian Popular Culture, 3(2):79-82

Schlüsselwörter: Bollywood audience, Hindu-Urdu film culture, cinema, globalization


This editorial introduces essays that deal with the question of what constitutes Bollywood audiences. They focus on the changing analyses of Bollywood audiences with regard to processes for example characterized as social, bodily, technological, economic, historical transnational psychic or sexual. Analyses presented in the essays assume dynamic and changing multiplicities of reception, production, exhibition and circulating of Hindu-Urdu popular film culture. Furthermore the essays concentrate on various social contestations central to Bollywood film culture and show that its global transnationalizing contexts should be understood as local negotiations of historically shifting relations of image production and consumption. The essays argue that Bollywood audiences constitute their own relationship to aspects such as changing narratives or shifting aesthetics in codes and values through psychic as well as social contestations. They state that active audiences continuously renegotiate the terms of their pleasure. Another point of importance made is that meaning is secondary. Contrary to dominant scholarship on Bollywood the negotiations of Bollywood audiences centralize articulations of imagistic and oral regimes with social practices rather than securing meaning. Further the globalization of film finance and production and the liberalization of Indian economy that are characterized by their flexibility lead to the proliferation of technologies of segmentation. The essays show that the strategies for this have shifted from the classis classes vs. masses breakdown to an emergence of audiences and sub-audiences that are not distinguished by one predictor but by multiple intersecting factors. Finally the essays criticize that film studies scholarship mainly focuses on films themselves as units of analyses and hardly considers aspects such as modernity nationalism or politics. As the essays shift from what Bollywood means to what it does, they enable the study of film to consider its relationship to larger social and historical settings. Moreover their shift entails to highlight the changing functionalities of film culture in relation to broader dynamics of nationalism.

Ramnarine, Tina Karina
"Indian" Music in the Diaspora: Case Studies of "Chutney" in Trinidad and in London
British Journal of Ethnomusicology, :133-153


This paper examines the musical genre "chutney" as an Indian-Caribbean tradition, and as an expression of identity in both Caribbean and British contexts. The tradition was shaped by historical processes which brought together Indian, Caribbean and British elements. It has developed as a diasporic "Indian" tradition in the pluricultural contexts of the Caribbean. Diverse influences can be traced in comtemporary chutney. In different geographic contexts, however, the tradition expresses a specific Indian-Caribbean identity.

Rapp, Tobias
Lost and Sound: Berlin Techno und der Easyjetset
Suhrkamp, Frankfurt am Main


[Meltem 2009] Tobias Rapp, a German music journalist and techno-fan, discusses the influences and consequences of what he calls the easyjet-culture on Berlin’s techno club-scene. Easyjet-culture refers to the availability of cheap flights, which makes weekend trips within Europe much easier. According to Rapp, this fact has led to an increasing tourism targeting Berlin’s techno scene. He calls these tourists “easyjetraveler”. The reader gets an overview of the techno scene and of Berlin’s cultural politics with regard to its history, its most important clubs, its DJs and descriptions of what might be called typical nights out. Legendary techno-clubs like Watergate, Bar25, Tresor, Berghain and Golden Gate are combined with interviews that feature several famous techno-DJs like Ricardo Villalobos, Phillipp Lohmann alias Efdenim and Steffen Berghahn alias Dixon. Finally, Berlin’s extraordinary situation in relation to unused and temporarily used spaces respecting club culture is discussed by the author. Due to developments in Berlin after German reunification, new possibilities for club venues have opened up. Rapp argues that club culture is one of Berlin’s few main economic strongholds and thus an important source of income, also for the tourism industry. Although this leads city politicians to be lenient when it comes to code enforcements and uses of space, club organizers have to keep up the pressure to fight against urban development projects that would clash with club culture needs.

Amit, Vered und Rapport, Nigel
The Trouble with Community: Anthropological Reflections on Movement, Identity and Collectivity
Polity Press, London


According to Amit and Rapport, anthropological tradition testifies to the persistence of notions like community, nation and culture in spite of these concepts’ theoretical vagueness. Nevertheless, the authors point out, meanings, images and symbols of communality should be objected to more critical investigation with regard to the notion of intentionality. They argue that network analysis, which implies relations shaped by affinity, is a valuable starting point for the critique of community. For them, ethnographic attention towards individual actions and motivations reveals that the theoretical temptations of community fuel misleading analyses of different forms of collective belonging. Amit and Rapport provide a critique of the social theorists that have been crucial to the study of culture and belonging. First of all, they state that Anderson's concept of imagined communities leads to the reification of groupings, because it makes any idea about collective belonging possible. Secondly, Appadurai's conflation of groups and cultural categories like ethnicity gives rise to essentialist interpretations of communities, because it does not allow to theorizing flexible group formations (where people only share some cultural categories). Additionally, anthropologists' expectations about collective identification inform studies of migration, ethnic, race and transnational studies. Instead of community, the focus on network formation allows for a more nuanced and less institutional definition of what groupings mean. Although networks and communities often overlap and can be hard to differentiate, the former are indexical, that is dependent on the context, and do not imply presumptions about social persistence. Amit and Rapport shed light on the processual aspect of communality instead of focusing on categorical differentiations between bounded groups. They suggest the use of the notion of disjunction, exemplified by ethnographic attention to the deliberate and strategic aspects of transnational consultants' life. These professionals cope with late-capitalist restructuring by choosing to travel and changing their work context frequently, at the expense of a more sedentary and affective-oriented lifestyle. They embody the process of economic abstraction (28), in that they give priority to their career paths rather than to other spheres of existence. While they experience social vulnerability because of their nomadic life, these professionals opt to look for adventure and excitement. In this example, the authors show that these professionals privilege ideas of separation, fissure and flexible reconfiguration of their life experiences. Anthropological emphasis on collectiveness cannot account for this tendency because of its stress on community and boundary constitution. Similarly, migrants interpret their experience according to the multiple categories of their network and realistic or imagined relations with the homeland. For instance, diaspora can become a very negative personal experience and does not necessarily lead to the fact or feeling of being part of a community. Therefore theoretical efforts to define transnational experiences and cultural difference have led to uncritical assumptions concerning collective identities and connectedness, represented for instance in studies of ethnicity and diaspora. The authors, on the contrary, aim to underline experiences of disjuncture in order to provide more insightful perspectives for the study of communality, which, as they point out, is always a contextualized phenomenon. Without ignoring ethnically- and racially-based forms of identifications, novel paradigms of transnationalism can shed light on the historical evolution of such claims to difference.

Redhead, Steve
Subculture to clubcultures: An introduction to popular cultural studies
Blackwell, Oxford

Rief, Silvia
Club-Kulturen, Identitätsprojekte und soziale Positionierung
In Udo Göttlich, Editor, Arbeit, Politik und Religion in Jugendkulturen Engagement und Vergnügen
Seite 179-193.

Schlüsselwörter: club scenes, dance, youth cultures, identity, narrative, social positioning


This essay examines how social positions and forms of capital matter in terms of the con-struction of identity and belonging within youth cultures. Referring to youth scenes as volun-tary and temporary forms of sociality, Silvia Rief emphasizes that they do, however, imply symbolic practices of distinction; these may indicate other hierarchical categories of differ-ence (e.g. gender, age, class, ethnicity). Rief also shows how her interviewees’ identity pro-jects involve clubbing and working in club scenes. For example, Clare, who comes from a middle-class family background, works as a fetish dancer in different clubs which enables her to experiment with drugs, sexual experiences and physical self-expression. The way the interviewees interpret their clubbing experiences is what reflects their social positioning: The application of competences thus results from social capital (contacts/networks), and the in-fluence of cultural capital becomes visible in Clare’s positioning as part of a particular social elite. However, this means that Clare not only distances herself from commercialized ‘meat market clubs’ that connote working class and consumerist mass culture, but also from the conventional middle-class way of life (respectable career, heterosexual gender order, nuclear family model). Therefore, in Clare’s narrative the dimension of ‘conventionality’ serves as a foil for the transgression, rebellion and creativity she associates with being a club dancer. Concluding, considering Clare’s ambivalent relationship with hedonistic pleasure, the author raises the question of whether Clare does after all subscribe to ‘bourgeois’ principles and gender roles. “Club-cultures, Identity projects and social positioning” discusses the transformation of the definition of youth cultures from stable, long term identifications with one group to flexible, temporarily group belongings with fluid boundaries, although the author points out that one still can find demarcation- and closing processes within different youth cultural contexts. One of the most important outcomes of the 20 narrative interviews regarding music genre and sexual codes, conducted while researching Club Cultures in London, is that ‘reality’ for the respondents was divided into “nighttime”- and “daytime” realities. The author examines the correlation of autobiographical narratives and the influence of former (educational) socialization, examining what role the social structural positions of young people play for negotiation processes in club contexts. By reference to (auto-) biographical case analysis of two young British women in their twenties, who used to work as club dancers for the same company for the same period of time, Rief shows that the very same socialization setting can have controversial effects, concerning the telling of their own autobiographical history on the one hand and how they position themselves in a social setting. While one of the respondents totally identifies with the clubbing scene, her role as a dancer, and claims the scene with including drug consumption and other practices as her “lifestyle”; the other respondent creates distance and names the practices she is also involved in as “only a job”, separate from her “private” life.

Rief, Silvia
Club cultures: Boundaries, identities, and otherness
Routledge, London u.a.


This book explores contemporary club and dance cultures as a manifestation of aesthetic and prosthetic forms of life. Rief addresses the questions of how practices of clubbing help cultivate particular forms of reflexivity and modes of experience, and how these shape new devices for reconfiguring the boundaries around youth cultural and other social identities. She contributes empirical analyses of how such forms of experience are mediated by the particular structures of night-clubbing economies, the organizational regulation and the local organization of experience in club spaces, the media discourses and imageries, the technologies intervening into the sense system of the body (e.g. music, visuals, drugs) and the academic discourses on dance culture. Although the book draws from local club scenes in London and elsewhere in the UK, it also reflects on similarities and differences between nightclubbing cultures across geographical contexts.

Riegel, Christine und Geisen, Thomas
Jugend, Zugehörigkeit und Migration. Subjektpositionierung im Kontext von Jugendkultur, Ethnizitäts- und Geschlechterkonstruktionen

Robbins, Bruce
The Phantom Public Sphere
University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis and London

Roberts, Martin
Notes on the Global Underground: Subcultural Elites, Conspicous Cosmopolitanism
In Ken Gelder und Sarah Thornton, Editor, The Subcultures Reader
Seite 575-586.

Robins, Kevin
Becoming Anybody: Thinking against the Nation and through the City
City, 5(1):77-90

Schlüsselwörter: nation, ‘British culture’, London, city, urban, cultural complexity


This article examines some of the dilemmas of British culture with regard to the increasing cultural complexity in contemporary Britain. Kevin Robins argues that most of the dilemmas result from a way of thinking that is driven by a national perspective about the British culture and identity. The author emphasises that the national vision of an abstract British community is limited, since it regards diversity/plurality as disorder and fragmentation. Therefore, Robin argues for a new way of thinking about cultural complexity from a counter-national perspective. In this way, the author shows how the city, particularly London, challenges the imagined coherence and integrity of a homogeneous ‘British culture’. From an urban perspective (that is grounded in the embodied experience of diverse urban cultures in London), he argues, one is able to reflect differently on multicultural complexities in contemporary Britain. Robin suggests that this core argument can also apply to other urban and national contexts.

Ross, Andrew , Owen, Frank , Moby, , Knuckles, Frankie und Cooper, Carol
The Cult of the DJ: A Symposium
Social Text, 43:67-88

Schlüsselwörter: Dj cult, music press, U.S, popular music cultures


This article documents a panel discussion that took place at a conference entitled 'A to the K: New Directions in Popular Music'. The panel problematizes the fact that there haven't been any decent publications on dance music, especially a credible history of the Dj in the U.S context. It is argued that the dance club has been one of the most important cultural institutions of the last two decades with regard to musical progress, fashion, courtship, performance and sexual display. Here the changing role of the Dj is emphasized as profound as it has moved from the position of the industry go-between, promoter to the position of independent producers and creators in their own right. This redefinition is considered as a revolutionary development in popular music. However, the panel criticizes that dance music has not received the deserved attention from the press in U.S- American music press, due to a regionally decentralized, racially segregated and genre-driven music scene. The panel addresses this neglect by elaborating on the difficulty to market house music acts and labels not investing their resources into dance music as well as the disregard of Djs as artists. Within this context the Djs position, influence on and meaning to the audience is thematized. Furthermore a lack of publications that hinders the development of an infrastructure involving a critical sensibility that appreciates dance music is mentioned. The panel points out the flavoring of rock music and “rockism“ or “rock ideology“ as well as (a return) to white middle class values leading to dance music being discredited and excluded. Moreover the panel addresses issues of racism and homophobia regarding the attitudes of the music press towards dance music as well as economic underpinnings that influenced the dance music club culture.

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