. .


Alle :: A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, J, K, L, M, N, O, Ö, P, R, S, T, U, V, W, Y, Z 
Sassen, Saskia
The Global City: New York, London, Tokyo
Princeton University Press, Princeton


This classic work chronicles how New York, London, and Tokyo became command centers for the global economy and in the process underwent a series of massive and parallel changes. What distinguishes Sassen's theoretical framework is the emphasis on the formation of cross-border dynamics through which these cities and the growing number of other global cities begin to form strategic transnational networks

Sökefeld, Martin
Das Paradigma kultureller Differenz: Zur Forschung und Diskussion über Migranten aus der Türkei in Deutschland
In Martin Sökefeld, Editor, Jenseits des Paradigmas kultureller Differenz
Seite 9-33.

Schlüsselwörter: cultural difference, cultural concept, cultural conflict, deconstruction of culture


[Meltem Acartürk 2009] Sökefeld's article takes us into the highly relevant discussion of the use of culture as an excuse for and explanation of acting and behaviour in the context of migration studies in both research and policy. In this article he criticizes the use of culture concept in academia and in political discourses. The hypothesis in this article can be stated as follows: by using the term of culture as a cultural concept system which works both in science and politics. Definition of culture and its function as a place holder is seen as an obstacle in the integration process. The political history of the Turkish 'guestworker' generation in Germany since the 1960's (p.12-14) can be split into three terminological phases: 1. Gastarbeiter ('guestworkers'): the term was seen as a solution in the 1960's for the post-war period and upcoming economic situation in Germany 2. Ausländer ('foreigners'): this term was used until the late 1990's, politicians spoke of 'Ausländerpolitik', which included different strategies in the 1980's and 1990's motivating the Turkish immigrants to go back to Turkey 3. Zuwanderer ('immigrants'): since the late 1990's there is a new policy in Germany which has slowly come to recognize that Germany is an immigration country (please note the specific terminological difference between Zuwanderer and Einwanderer). In academic literature about immigrants in Germany from Turkey, lots of the research concentrates on problematic issues such as integration problems, educational deficits, socialization problems and youth criminality, which are supposedly caused by cultural conflicts. The literature mostly focuses on differences both in culture and socialization. Difference generally implies inequality. The idea is that immigrants bring their own and very different culture (compared to the culture of the host country) to Germany. Consequently, immigrants have always been seen and marginalized as a problem. The image of Turkish culture has been constructed by researchers with little Turkish language skills, who, mostly for short periods only, conducted fieldwork in rural villages in Turkey. The conclusions drawn from this research were ill-informed and were then generalized to apply to the whole of Turkey, thus reinforcing the notion of culture being homogenous within nation-states. Sökefeld points out that this is a problem constructed by science and policy. Both have focused more on problems and problematic issues relating to the second generation than on children and young people who grew up and were educated in a 'normal' way. The concept of culture used as described serves to excuse social acting and even identity.

Sökefeld, Martin
Jenseits des Paradigmas kultureller Differenz. Neue Perspektiven auf Einwanderer aus der Türkei
Transcript, Bielefeld

Schlüsselwörter: Migration, cultural difference, Othering,


This book deals with migrants still being viewed and constructed a long the paradigm of cultural difference and therefore positioned as the other, despite a growing realization of Germany being a migration country. Such approaches lead to complex and multi-faceted realities of life, that may be more familiar than dominant discourses claim being ignored and made invisible. Therefore the different contributions of this book examine and criticize discourses regarding politics, society as well as academia that fix migrants/ people of color in positions of cultural difference and focus on looking at realities of life beyond them. The articles concentrate on a re-determination of the debate on migrants/people of color in Germany. For example one author problematizes the equation of culture with national culture and discusses powerfully entangled processes of cultural attributions while showing possibilities as well as limitations of hybridity as an alternative concept. Another contribution analyzes how the categories culture and gender are interlinked within pedagogical discourses on migration as well as the forms of ' double exclusion' they result in. Furthermore the necessity of a re-definition of gender and culture beyond dichotomizing oppositions is stressed. The discussion of three different examples in Berlin is central to another article that shows how adolescents of color practice manifold strategies beyond dominant attributions revolving around disorientation and marginality. On the whole the contributions focus on a critique of the concept of culture used within dominant discourses in Germany.

Low, Setha M , Taplin, Dana und Scheld, Suzanne
Rethinking urban parks: Public space & cultural diversity
University of Texas Press, Austin

Schlüsselwörter: Public spaces; United States; urban parks; environmental psychology; multiculturalism

Scher, Philip W.
Perspectives on the Caribbean. A reader in culture, history, and representation.
Wiley-Blackwell, Chichester, U.K. ; Malden, MA

Schlüsselwörter: Ethnology; ethnicity; Folklore; Culture and globalization; Cultural fusion;


Through a comprehensive selection of classic and contemporary interdisciplinary readings, this title presents a variety of viewpoints to further our understanding of life and culture in the Caribbean.

Schiffauer, Werner
Parallelgesellschaften. Wie viel Wertekonsens braucht unsere Gesellschaft? Ethnografische Überlegungen
Transcript, Bielefeld

Schildt, Axel und Siegfried, Detlef
European Cities, Youth and the Public Sphere in the Twentieth Century
Ashgate, Aldershot

Schmidt, Robert
Pop-Sport-Kultur. Praxisformen körperlicher Aufführungen
UVK, Konstanz

Sennett, Richard
The Conscience of the Eye: Design and Social Life of Cities
Berliner Taschenbuch Verlag, Berlin

Schlüsselwörter: cities, architecture, urban design, visual politics, deconstruction, diversity


Richard Sennett’s Book explores and looks at how urban life in the city has developed by concentrating on architecture, urban planning, public and the visual scenes within cities. In the first half of the book, he is concerned with why the city is perceived to be negative and how architecture, urban design and visual qualities of the built environments reflect a collective fear of being exposed to the ‘other’ or to the unknown. Designed in ways where divisions can be viewed clearly through the ways motorways separate different quarters or how plates of glass separate the inside and outside of buildings, cities, as Sennett informs the reader, provoke and force forms of disengagement. Referring to and going back in history, Sennett explores this fear of diversity and complexity and roots this in the Judeo-Christian culture which privileged the inner space of consciousness, the “inner space of definition” over the external space of the physical and material world which represented “diversity and chaos” (p.19). Sennett opens up different scenes and times in world history in order to explore this fear and disengagement and interweaves the different contributions from architects, urban planners and the like. He argues that the different times of constructions by different contributors do not allow a visual connection between the objects within the city, which in turn affects how one feels estranged to the ethics of diversity. The author suggests that people should begin to alter and regulate their behavior by showing an understanding and awareness of the ‘other’ through their vision and have city spaces constructed, that do not divide and regulate but rather unite people. Sennett proposes a city of “deconstructions” (p.224), whereby the ethical forces of difference, discontinuity and disorientation connect people to each other. He wants people to be exposed to one another empathetically. The author argues that if people interact with each other, open up to the diversity of the city and develop a type of urban visual conscience they may be able to relate to the 'stranger' in the street. Sennett opens up the terrain of visual politics and provokes the reader to (re)consider the different forms of encounters they face in their daily lives.

Sennett, Richard
The Uses of Disorder. Personal Identity and City Life
Yale University Press, New Haven and London

Schlüsselwörter: Puritan ethic, individualism, community, otherness, disorder, diversity


In the first chapter, Sennett explores some psychological patterns he attributes to adolescence, namely the fears due to the conjunction of desire and lack of life experience. According to the author, it is typical for adolescents to imagine a purified and coherent personal identity in order to avoid all the unknown experiences they do not want to have. This puritan ethic can be found in adults who seek a secure life devoid of disorder when building communities in contemporary urban life. According to Sennett, communities are organized around a myth of solidarity that constructs a collective identity yet at once excludes concrete sharing and communication between members, also by virtue of increased affluence and individualism. In order for the community to survive, ideas of solidarity that transcend subjectivities need to be solidified against the fear of disorder. The foundations of this myth can be found in the modern family that establishes itself as an isolated, self-sustained social formation; families do not educate to otherness, they rather privilege the sameness of the familial bond. As a result, people do not diversify their social lives, as they tend not to navigate through different public spaces in their daily lives. The sociality of the suburban middle-class American life has been self-exiled to the safe space of the home. City planning equates to the same principle and reflects its logic, as cities appear to be ordered spaces and urban communities are controlled by an impersonal bureaucracy. In the second part of the book, Sennett suggests a new type of social interaction that would re-attribute complexity to social life by overcoming the blind absolutism of communities: the anarchist city. In his opinion, sociality should be defined with regard to individual bonds made in a spirit of doubt, exchange, and questioning rather than the assertion of the collective myth of solidarity. The sociologist believes that this is only possible in a disorganized city. In other words, the use of disorder encourages new social formations within the city, whereby all citizens face diversity on a daily basis, and conflicts are responsibly shared and dealt with. The anarchist city is therefore the starting point of adulthood where the narrowness of community formations can be overcome.

Sennett, Richard
The fall of public man
Cambridge University Press, Cambridge/London

Schlüsselwörter: private sphere, public sphere, urban public, narcissism, private/public sphere


In “The Fall of Public Man” Sennett comments on the complex relationship between theater, politics, the changing function of the family and urban life. By combining social theory and historical experience of four decades - the 1750s, 1840s, 1890s and finally the 1970s - Sennett develops the thesis that public life has been displaced by increasingly narcissistic forms of intimacy and self-absorption to the disservice of both the individual and the society at large. He draws his rich study on the analysis of social movements and practices in London and Paris of the same time period. Intimate feelings that were once a vital part within the circle of family and close friends, invaded the public life. Sennet attributes this to the crisis of today's society. Whereas people lived in a society with clear social hierarchies before the industrial revolution, it has become increasingly elusive for a member of modern society to construct his/her real personality, feelings and position. According to Sennett, the modern human is imprisoned by a system that associates the public persona with a pure and authentic personality, where he or she assumes the interest of others in who she or he ‘really’ is. Sennett ties this to the secularization processes in the twentieth century as well as to the commodification of status symbols, markers of the ritual of the public. It is the pressure to be authentic which causes people to retract from the public sphere into evermore isolated social spaces of shared interests rather than be accused of feeling/being inauthentic. By means of Sennett, civil life in modern industrial society is deprived of the pleasures and reinforcements of a lost interchange with fellow citizens. The “stranger“ has turned into a threatening figure, silence and observation have become the only ways to experience public life, especially street life, without feeling overwhelmed. With this transformation of public life, such as the desire to be left alone in public, Sennett notes, that private life has also become distorted.

Shapiro, Peter
Turn the beat around. The secret history of disco.
Faber and Faber, London

Schlüsselwörter: Discosound; Disco music; Popular culture

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