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Bibliographie

Autor:  
Alle :: A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, J, K, L, M, N, O, Ö, P, R, S, T, U, V, W, Y, Z 
Alle :: Talbani, ... , Terkessidis, Terrio, Thornton, ... , Toynbee 
Referenzen
Talbani, Aziz und Hasanali, Parveen
Adolescent females between tradition and modernity: gender role socialization in South Asian immigrant culture
Journal of Adolescence, 23:615-627
2000

Schlüsselwörter: South Asian adolescent females, gender roles, tradition, qualitative research, Canada

Zusammenfassung:

Aziz Talbani and Parveen Hasanali’s study investigates the social and cultural experiences of adolescent females from a diverse range of South Asian immigrant groups in Canada. The study examines how female roles are changing in South Asian families, with two main focuses. Firstly, a focus on what strategies South Asian families employ to maintain traditional female roles and secondly, how South Asian female adolescents effect cultural change and their views on power and control in families, gender equity and social change in Canada. The study applies qualitative research methods such as in-depth interviewing, with 22 participants, all from different South Asian backgrounds in Montreal. It is argued that South Asian groups have had a long history of living in diverse societies, and are therefore able to adjust well in the host country. Through acculturation, South Asian groups have been able to incorporate European cultural elements within their culture; however, negotiation of cultural change has proven to be difficult. Family structures have changed and women have become active in the workforce, however they are still confronted with stigmatized gender roles. Gender segregation is an important instrument in socialization that manages the distribution of power and defines gender-specific roles. The institution of marriage also remains an instrument of social control. Many South Asian adolescent females resent their parental control, which compel them to rebellion while knowing that this behaviour may lead to high social costs. Although there is a great desire to have gender equality, women are socialized in a certain way, internalizing knowledge and attitudes which legitimate and normalize inequality. It is expected that any social change will be a gradual process.

Talbot, Deborah und Böse, Martina
Racism, criminalization and the development of night-time economies:Two case studies in London and Manchester
Ethnic and Racial Studies, 30(1):95-118
2007

Schlüsselwörter: Night-time economy nightlife licensing cultural regeneration exclusion cultural diversity

Zusammenfassung:

Nightlife has historically been identified as a social problem. In the contemporary context, however, this perspective competes with the promotion of the ‘night-time economy’ as a source of economic regeneration and extended licensing as a means to establish a more genteel ‘cafe´ society’. However, these changes have concealed a reconfiguration of differentiating strategies. This article explores this neglected issue through two cases studies, one based in London and one in Manchester, and examines the fate of black cultural forms, venues and licensees in contemporary nightlife. It will argue that, due to the historical criminalization of black youth, music and residential areas, black cultural spaces have been subject to a process of exclusion in the new playgrounds of the night-time economy. The implications of this for social cohesion will be examined.

Low, Setha M , Taplin, Dana und Scheld, Suzanne
Rethinking urban parks: Public space & cultural diversity
University of Texas Press, Austin
2005

Schlüsselwörter: Public spaces; United States; urban parks; environmental psychology; multiculturalism


Terkessidis, Mark
Globale Kultur in Deutschland: oder: Wie unterdrückte Frauen und Kriminelle die Hybridität retten
Parapluie, (6):1-12
1999

Schlüsselwörter: hegemony, receptions, hybridity, representation

Zusammenfassung:

In this article Terkessidis reflects on the reception of the hybridity concept in the German speaking area. He states that despite its cross-border qualities it neither imperatively entails the overcoming of contemporary distributions of power nor does it implicate the omission of exclusions. Power relations are simply articulated in a more subtle way. Therefore its de-limitation certainly has limitations. Terkessidis makes a distinction between internal and external differences and by means of two examples shows that the consumption of differences is identified by a set of internal limitations and hierarchies. At first he refers to an advertising campaign of the café brand Melitta with its motto “It’s all in the Mix“. The protagonist of the campaign, a white middle-aged male, is always positioned amongst people of colour. During the demonstration of the “cultural mix“ old clischés are brought to new life in order to fulfil the symbolic mission. Furthermore Terkessidis elucidates that Peter Maffay'slast LP and its concept exemplify the reanimation of stereotypes for the sake of “mixture“. In both cases the white protagonists are always in a superior position because they represent the “mixture“ and keep the space of control occupied at the same time. There are also external limitations which Terkessidis demonstrates by means of two counterparts of the “hybrid community“: the women wearing headscarves and the criminal (post-) migrant. Considering the symbolic significance of the headscarf it becomes apparent that it constrains the consumption of the exoticised “other“ because it blocks the enjoyment of difference. The difference expressed by the headscarf thus differs from the consumable one. The criminal (post-) migrant indeed represents another form of the external difference because he himself wants to consume. Certainly he chooses a different way to the majority, namely the way of delinquency. The agents of hybridity might say that women wearing headscarves have a surplus of culture whereas the criminal (post-) migrant has a lack of culture. Terkessidis argues that hybridity understood in terms of Homi K. Bhabha’s concept does not echo the mainstream hybridity, but rather its hegemonic counterparts, because the process of metonomy begins in invisibility. One can speak of hybrid invisibility in the cases of women wearing headscarves and the criminal (post-) migrant because they do not find themselves in the position which is imposed on them. The young Muslim women neither embody the religious traditionality nor does the criminal (post-) migrant necessarily lack culture and prospects. They often represent a subculture in an invisible space where the dislocation can take place. Therefore they inhabit Bhabha’s “third space“, which is not located between two cultures but rather in every cultural expression which embodies one in another. Terkessidis reveals that the hybrid difference is exactly located where it appears invisible for the majority and can thus initiate a crisis of representation.

Mayer, Ruth und Terkessidis, Mark
Globalkolorit. Multikulturalismus und Populärkultur
Hannibal Verlag, St. Andrä/Wördern
1998

Schlüsselwörter: Globalization, racism, multiculturalism, migration

Zusammenfassung:

This book thematizes how popular culture influences identity formations as well as fears and desires in the context of globalization, migration and tourism. Relationships regarding the own and the other are analyzed as well as what kind of new stereotypes and exclusions are produced and how. The different contributions discuss the relationship between multiculturalism and popular culture while looking at everyday phenomena such as fashion, graffiti, soccer and movies. Multiculturalism is understood as a modernization of racism in which discourses revolving around notions of tolerance and enrichment reveal relations of power in which differences between imagined groups are constructed and people of color are fixed in positions by the dominant society while power structures are obfuscated. Amongst other phenomena the contributions examine how German Turkish rap has come to be an invention of German social workers wanting to calm down delinquent adolescents within the German multicultural society and therefore creating a certain identity of them instead of rap actually being an expression subversion and non-commercialism. Another article thematizes ambivalences “the Asian woman“ is confronted with within Australian multiculturalism and criticizes the tendency of leftist discourses to affirmatively refer to processes of hybridization. It is concluded that such discourses lead to a romanticization while neglecting that ambivalences cannot only be enabling but also involve forms of coercion and constraint. Other authors for example look at fundamentalism, feminism and south Asian women in London arguing that what is classified as orientalist fundamentalism as well as the western discourses regarding matters as such are a result of multiculturalism itself, as they historically are a result of modernity. Furthermore the term fundamentalism is understood to ideologically concentrate the by multiculturalism excluded other. All the contributions attempt to address cultural, historical as well as economic contexts of multiculturalism in their analysis.

Ossman, Susan und Terrio, Susan
The French Riots: Questioning Spaces of Surveillance and Sovereignty
International Migration, 44(2):5-21
2006

Zusammenfassung:

This paper examines the riots in France in late 2005 in terms of how they lead to a reconceptualization of the spaces of danger, culture, territory, and sovereignty. It traces a brief history of danger zones and immigration, noting how these two terms have increasingly overlapped. We analyse key discursive formations – legal, political, social scientific, and media – whose explanation for the emergence of the “immigrant” delinquent is linked to what is identified as a culture of poverty. They provide a sustained examination of recent legal reforms of juvenile law as well as judicial practices within the juvenile justice system to show the systematic exclusionary practices of what is claimed to be a colour blind republican system. They reveal a consensus across the political spectrum and among police, prosecutors, investigating magistrates, and new security experts on the need to privilege accountability, restitution, and retribution in the treatment of juvenile offenders. We present evidence from interviews and ethnographic observation among youths of all backgrounds. Ironically, while the children of immigrants seek to claim a voice in the national community, their peers from more privileged social milieu express increasing distance from national concerns, seeking to lead lives as Europeans or global citizens. We end by arguing that this needs to be taken into account in any analysis of frustrated and disenfranchised suburban youths. A transnational or supra-national sociology that accounts for the itineraries of immigrants of all kinds must be developed.

Terrio, Susan
Who Are the Rioters in France?
Anthropology News, 47(1):4
2006

Zusammenfassung:

By quoting an article of the Globe concerning French riots in 2005, Terrio proposes a new approach to violence within poor outskirts of urban centers in France. According to her, the rioters have been described as being part of gangs, victims of socio-economic alienation and, most predominantly, Muslim immigrants. For the author, however, these youth are second and third generation immigrants whose anger cannot be elucidated through cultural explanations. Moreover, the majority of these people do not have a Muslim background. Terrio argues that the causes of this urban violence do not lie in youths’ cultural distance from mainstream French society, but in the alienation youth perceive from the national juridical system. Major reasons for youth alienation are social and economic marginalisation, spatial exclusion and anti-immigrant racism. According to the author, French authorities’ aim to inflate police records of immigrant conviction results in forms of heavy harassment of youth. Juvenile delinquency policies have been the object of a shift during the last fifteen years: instead of prevention, they now focus on individual accountability and restitution. In a context of increasing fear and sensationalist media coverage of the suburbs, zero-tolerance policies have been enacted implying higher penalties even for petty crimes. Moreover, this approach requires an increased deployment of police and coercive tactics within “bad” neighbourhoods. Youth feel alienated from police officers because the latter act with impunity and hold racist attitudes toward minorities, who are underrepresented in the French justice system anyway. The visibility and masculinity of these youth are seen as a threat by French institutions and land them in court; for the author, youth are expressing their powerlessness vis-à-vis injustice in forms that could have a global resonance.

Thornton, Sarah
Club Cultures: Music, Media and Subcultural Capital
Polity Press, Cambridge
1995

Schlüsselwörter: Club cultures, Dance, Music, Media, Subculture, Bourdieu, Distinction, Subcultural Capital

Zusammenfassung:

In her first chapter, Thornton sets out the arguments for looking at dance and music cultures, subjects that have been neglected in the past, being regarded as mindless and banal. However, her aim is not to celebrate the creativity of dance culture, nor to canonise dance music but to investigate the social lives, attitudes and ideals of youth participating in the club and rave scene. Thornton describes club cultures as “taste cultures”, whereby crowds of people share a space on the basis of their shared interest in music and media. Cultural hierarchies exist within club cultures, which in turn, correspond to social hierarchies, where people’s tastes are predominantly a marker of class. Subcultures are also described as taste cultures, which work in conjunction with the media. As Thornton posits, a subculture fears any endorsement from the media, particularly an underground scene, which can become commercialised and made ‘mainstream’. The author draws upon Pierre Bourdieu’s work Distinction (1984) and coins her own term “subcultural capital”, where “hipness” and “being in the know” are markers. Subcultural capital can be objectified or embodied, in forms such as fashionable haircuts and well-assembled record collections. However, Thornton warns the reader that someone trying too hard can deplete this type of capital. Clubs have at times been viewed as places of segregation and at other times they ensure subcultural autonomy and “permitting subordinate social groups to control and define their own cultural space”(p.24). The latter has been theorised in the Birmingham tradition as a ‘winning of space’. In the dance and rave scene marketing has been most successful when youth have felt they ‘won’ it for themselves. Thornton cautions however, that although clubs can house alternative cultures, they tend to duplicate structures of exclusion and stratification found elsewhere.

Gelder, Ken und Thornton, Sarah
The Subcultures Reader
Routledge, London/New York
1997

Tonkiss, Fran
Space, the City and Social Theory: Social Relations and Urban Forms
Polity, Cambridge
2005

Schlüsselwörter: Community, Solitude, Social Relations, City, Urban Sociology, Urban Space, Ethnicity, Race

Zusammenfassung:

Fran Tonkiss’ chapter on social relations in the city explores the tension between anonymity and community in the city. The first part of the chapter considers the early debates in urban sociology, particularly the Chicago School theorists. Social relations in the city were seen to be characterised by anonymity and rationality, but community formations in the city were described as ‘pre-modern, non urban’ (p.8) or ‘villages in the city’ (p.9). However, the second symbolic move within early urban sociology was the linkage made between the formation of communities and patterns of social difference that were explored through the prisms of class and ethnicity. Distinct social groups in different segregated spaces of the city were soon associated with social disadvantage and/or ethnic difference. The term ‘community’ started to take on particularly ethnic connotations and in turn became racially coded and a concept to describe problematic, supposedly marginalized minorities in the city. Tonkiss refers to Louis Wirth’s work on the character of the city and the tension between effects of modern urbanism and the persistence of urban communities, and uses the Herbert Gans’ ethnographic case study of “urban villagers” in the West End of Boston and the community studies of Michael Young and Peter Willmott of white working class families in the East End of London to explore this further. The chapter proceeds to outline the threat that communities in these urban locales faced from the physical and social redevelopment of urban environments. In contrast to the afore mentioned studies by Gans and Willmott and Young, Jane Jacobs’ work on urbanism is considered as a progressive example. Jacob’s work in New York moves away from using the language of ‘community’ and looks at features that allow a city to function. She prefers looking at the everyday flow of city life and the mundane activities people carry out everyday in the different spaces of the city. People that move through the city are confronted with exchanges of the everyday, which slowly builds up a trust relationship. Her main argument concerns the value of indifference and anonymity as features of city life, which she agues are linked to the toleration of differences essential to the ethics of city life. Everyday politics of difference in the city thus work through an ethics of indifference, whereby the solitude of everyday life has a positive quality. Anonymity and indifference can be perceived as negative aspects of a city, but can also hold what she calls the gift of privacy which many people expect from life in cities.

Six-Hohenbalken, Maria und Tosic, Jelena
Anthropologie der Migration. Theoretische Grundlagen und interdisziplinäre Aspekte
facultas.wuv, Wien
2009

Bennett, Andy , Shark, Barry und Toynbee, Jason
The popular music studies reader
Routledge, London
2008

Zusammenfassung:

The Popular Music Studies Reader maps the changing nature of popular music over the last decade and considers how popular music studies has expanded and developed to deal with these changes. Articles discuss the increasing participation of women in the industry and the changing role of gender and sexuality in popular music, the role of new technologies, especially in production and distribution, and the changing nature of the relationship between music production and consumption. The Popular Music Studies Readerplaces popular music in its cultural context, looks at the significance of popular music in our everyday lives, and examines the global nature of the music industry.