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Alle :: A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, J, K, L, M, N, O, Ö, P, R, S, T, U, V, W, Y, Z 
Banerji, Sabita und Baumann, Gerd
Bhangra 1984-88: Fusion and Professionalism in a Genre of South Asian Dance Music
In Paul Oliver, Editor, Black Music in Britain
Seite 137-152.
Open University Press,

Schlüsselwörter: Bhangra, music industry, community, youth culture, professionalization


Gerd Baumann and Sabita Banerji join together in writing an article combining two distinct and complimentary perspectives. Banerji goes through a social and musical history of Bhangra in Britain, concentrating on the issues that arise from the relationship between Bhangra and the music industry. The isolation of the South Asian community coupled with the need to preserve its cultural identity meant that Bhangra was able to grow in a greenhouse (p.139). However, in the early to late eighties, a generation of British South Asians raised in Britain grew and searched for a musical voice to state who and what they were. Indi-pop saw an east-west fusion and then other groups like Alaap became popular in different Asian centres in the UK. Bhangra then became a commercially promising music form and that was something the British media picked up on from late 1986. Bhangra was viewed as ‘cross-over’ music and became a part of British youth culture. In the latter part of the article, Baumann proceeds by picking up on issues that Banerji picked up on in the first part of the article concerning ‘professionalization’. Bhangra emerged into the media limelight from the emerging disco and gig scene but the publicity of Asian ‘daytimers’ truly brought it to the forefront by Asian youth. However, this also sparked the first professional crisis in the history of Bhangra, bringing forward a deluge of would-be promoters, which caused the Bhangra scene to fragment. The problems of piracy also became an issue, whereby producers were unable to control its distribution, even to the extent that producers colluded with pirates and took a cut. In 1988 Bhangra, succeeded for the first time, succeeded in giving visibility to South Asian music in Britain. The South Asian ‘cross-over’ started to be marketed with established images, tastes and style of mainstream pop and the charts. Artists and producers wanted to become more professionalized and wanting to get over the difficulties of distribution, publicity and image and move in to the mainstream, yet trying to hold on to the ethos of bhangra. On the other hand, not all artists engaged in ‘professionalization’ and for many they were still attached to the social structures associated with music in Punjabi community, like performing at birthdays and weddings in Southall. The music remained legitimate and credible as the music of a distinctive cultural community. At the time of writing, Baumann’s last comments are that he is unsure of Bhangra’s future and hopes that it does not become another fad in the British music industry.

Bauman, Zygmunt
Liquid modernity
Polity Press, Cambridge
Repr. Edition

Schlüsselwörter: Bauman, Zygmunt Postmoderne Soziologische Theorie


Bauman examines how we have moved away from a 'heavy' and 'solid', hardware-focused modernity to a 'light' and 'liquid', software-based modernity. This passage, he argues, has brought profound change to all aspects of the human condition. The new remoteness and un-reachability of global systemic structure coupled with the unstructured and under-defined, fluid state of the immediate setting of life-politics and human togetherness, call for the rethinking of the concepts and cognitive frames used to narrate human individual experience and their joint history. This book is dedicated to this task. Bauman selects five of the basic concepts which have served to make sense of shared human life - emancipation, individuality, time/space, work and community - and traces their successive incarnations and changes of meaning.

Bauman, Zygmunt
Community: Seeking Safety in an Insecure World
Polity Press, Cambridge


A Community is one of those words that feels good: it is good a to have a community, a to be in a community. And a community feels good because of the meanings which the word conveys, all of them promising pleasures, and more often than not the kind of pleasures which we would like to experience but seem to miss. A Community conveys the image of a warm and comfortable place, like a fireplace at which we warm our hands on a frosty day. Out there, in the street, all sorts of dangers lie in ambush; in here, in the community, we can relax and feel safe. A Community stands for the kind of world which we long to inhabit but which is not, regrettably, available to us. Today a community is another name for paradise lost - but for a paradise which we still hope to find, as we feverishly search for the roads that may lead us there. But there is a price to be paid for the privilege of being in a community. Community promises security but seems to deprive us of freedom, of the right to be ourselves. Security and freedom are two equally precious and coveted values which could be balanced to some degree, but hardly ever fully reconciled. The tension between security and freedom, and between community and individuality, is unlikely ever to be resolved. We cannot escape the dilemma but we can take stock of the opportunities and the dangers, and at least try to avoid repeating past errors. In this important new book, Zygmunt Bauman takes stock of these opportunities and dangers and, in his distinctive fashion, offers a much needed reappraisal of a concept that has become central to current debates about the nature and future of our societies.

Baumann, Gerd
The Multicultural Riddle: Rethinking National, Ethnic, and Religious Identities
Routledge, New York and London


Multicultural Riddle is a comprehensive exploration of all the issues that shape our search for a multicultural society. The book examines how we can establish a state of justice and equality between and among three groups: those who believe in a unified national culture, those who trace their culture to their ethnic identity, and those who view their religion as their culture. To solve the multicultural riddle, one must rethink national identity, ethnicity and the role of religion in the modern world. In this rethinking comes a new concern with the meaning and making of culture emerges.

Bayat, Asef und Herrera, Linda
Being young and Muslim: New cultural politics in the global south and north
Oxford University Press, New York , Oxford

Schlüsselwörter: Muslim youth. Muslim youth Attitudes.


In recent years, there has been a proliferation of interest in youth issues and Muslim youth in particular. Young Muslims have been thrust into the global spotlight in relation to questions about security and extremism, work and migration, and rights and citizenship. This book interrogates the cultures and politics of Muslim youth in the global South and North to understand their trajectories, conditions, and choices. Drawing on wide-ranging research from Indonesia to Iran and Germany to the U.S., it shows that while the majority of young Muslims share many common social, political, and economic challenges, they exhibit remarkably diverse responses to them. Far from being "exceptional," young Muslims often have as much in common with their non-Muslim global generational counterparts as they share among themselves. As they migrate, forge networks, innovate in the arts, master the tools of new media, and assert themselves in the public sphere, Muslim youth have emerged as important cultural and political actors on a world stage.

Böse, Martina
Manchester´s cultural industries: A vehicle of racial ex/inclusion?
In Frank Eckardt und Dieter Hassenpflug, Editor, Consumption and the Post-Industrial City
Seite 167-177.
Peter Lang Publishers,

Schlüsselwörter: clubculture, cultural difference, creative industries, exclusion, underclass


This article explores the relationship between the construction of difference and the making of exclusion in the club culture economy. Based on ethnographic research in Manchester, it argues that the cultural practices of the consumers of a local cultural economy need to be viewed together with the practices of its producers in order to understand the interrelation of cultural differentiation and exclusion, which affects both groups. A discussion of the terms ‘underground’ and ‘underclass’, and their particular evocation in the cultural context highlights the interrelationship of social contexts, differentiation and exclusion in the cultural work realm. In conclusion, the article argues in favour of a consideration of these contexts and particularly of the inscription of ‘difference’ in research on work in the cultural industries.

Talbot, Deborah und Böse, Martina
Racism, criminalization and the development of night-time economies:Two case studies in London and Manchester
Ethnic and Racial Studies, 30(1):95-118

Schlüsselwörter: Night-time economy nightlife licensing cultural regeneration exclusion cultural diversity


Nightlife has historically been identified as a social problem. In the contemporary context, however, this perspective competes with the promotion of the ‘night-time economy’ as a source of economic regeneration and extended licensing as a means to establish a more genteel ‘cafe´ society’. However, these changes have concealed a reconfiguration of differentiating strategies. This article explores this neglected issue through two cases studies, one based in London and one in Manchester, and examines the fate of black cultural forms, venues and licensees in contemporary nightlife. It will argue that, due to the historical criminalization of black youth, music and residential areas, black cultural spaces have been subject to a process of exclusion in the new playgrounds of the night-time economy. The implications of this for social cohesion will be examined.

Böse, Martina
Difference and exclusion at work in the club culture economy
International Journal of Cultural Studies, 8(4):427-444

Schlüsselwörter: clubculture cultural difference creative industries exclusion underclass


This article explores the relationship between the construction of difference and the making of exclusion in the club culture economy. Based on ethnographic research in Manchester, it argues that the cultural practices of the consumers of a local cultural economy need to be viewed together with the practices of its producers in order to understand the interrelation of cultural differentiation and exclusion, which affects both groups. A discussion of the terms ‘underground’ and ‘underclass’, and their particular evocation in the cultural context highlights the interrelationship of social contexts, differentiation and exclusion in the cultural work realm. In conclusion, the article argues in favour of a consideration of these contexts and particularly of the inscription of ‘difference’ in research on work in the cultural industries.

Beck, Ulrich
The Cosmopolitan Perspective: Sociology of the Second Age of Modernity
British Journal of Sociology, 51(1):79-105

Schlüsselwörter: First and second age of modernity, cosmopolitization, multiple modernities, transnational risk communities


'Second age of modernity' is a magical password that is meant to open the doors to new conceptual landscapes. The whole world of nation sovereignty is fading away – including the 'container theory of society' on which most of the sociology of the first age of modernity is based upon. In this article Ulrich Beck proposes a distinction between 'simple globalization' and 'reflexive cosmopolitization'. In the paradigm of the first age of modernity, simple global-ization is interpreted within the territorial compass of state and politics, society and culture. This involves an additive, not substitutive, conception of globalization as indicated for exam-ple by 'interconnectedness'. In the paradigm of the second age of modernity globalization changes not only the relations between and beyond national states and societies, but also the inner quality of the social and political itself which is indicated by more or less reflexive cosmopolitization as an institutionalized learning process – and its enemies.

Beck, Ulrich
The Cosmopolitan Society and its Enemies
Theory, Culture & Society, 19(1-2):17-44


In this article, Beck proposes the concept of cosmopolitanization, which is related but not identical to globalization as a new tool for analysis. The former concept is perceived as a conceptual refinement of the latter in that, beyond the binary local/global, it implies the idea of globalization as happening within national societies. The crucial argument of the article is that second modernity needs to be conceptualised in terms going beyond the limits of the nation, because people do not reason and experience the world through the lenses of the nation exclusively. Moreover, the nation-state itself is becoming plural under the implosion of the dualism between the national and the international. This process entails the need for new sociological methods and concepts in order to overtake methodological nationalism and its monologic imagination in favour of a dialogic imagination taking the transnational into account. Beck prefers the notion of cosmopolitanization to the ideas of interconnectedness and fluidity. While cosmopolitanism is a set of ideas, cosmopolitanization allows for empirical exploration of the global world in an innovative transnational perspective reflecting the tensions existing between global capitals and national institutions. For instance, the notion of class should be questioned and put in a transnational frame of reference although it is complex to define what is national and what is not. This new sociology must be accompanied by the acknowledgment of a cosmopolitan society based on institutionalised action and ideas of a shared collective future and responsibility. Empirically, individuals experience banal cosmopolitanism, that is ordinary references to non-national contexts of meaning; from the subaltern worker to the businessman, individuals participate in transnational processes on a global basis. The new society implies the elaboration of new senses of economy and politics, new perceptions of time and space, of forms of identification, collective memory and ethos. Meanwhile, analysts should not forget the relevance of structural constraints contributing to the formation of social inequalities. For sociologist Beck, there are three main impediments to the realisation of a cosmopolitan society, which constitute potential drifts of the present politico-economic global conjuncture: nationalism, globalism and democratic authoritarianism. These are possible articulations of the state within the second modernity.

Behar, Daniel
Banlieues ghettos, quartiers populaires ou ville éclatée ? L'espace urbain à l'épreuve de la nouvelle question sociale
Les annales de la recherche urbaine, (68/69):6-14


This article explores issues of urban development with regard to poverty since, according to Béhar, they constitute a liaison inherent to urbanity. The author investigates several approaches to metropolitan poverty. When, during the 1980s, social inequalities were starting to be perceived as increasing within French society, urban developers ascribed the responsibility to the architectural structure of deprived boroughs. Considered as producers of ghettos, high-rise projects were supposed to determine and reiterate inequalities in spite of their initial housing-improvement goals. Instead, the author suggests, political actors aiming for equality should focus on trivialising these neighbourhoods and implementing effective policies. However, the implementation of this trivialisation faces two major obstacles. First of all, it implies the notion of enclosure of these areas, whilst there is actually no correlation between poverty and defined geographic spaces. Second of all, it embeds politics of affirmative action: in order to improve one quarter, actors are forced to define hierarchies of need that potentially produce further inequalities. Nevertheless, a more recent intellectual position is based on the conviction that poverty is structural and should somehow be recognised through the constitution of a collective consciousness: the creativity of the popular strata of society must be fostered through public policies. Some supporters of this position insist on the cultural dimension of these policies, instead of the social one. However, according to the author, this intellectual position stems from the public withdrawal of authorities from civil society. The banlieue issue is much more complex. According to Behar, modern urban agglomerations produce the so-called “dissociated segregation”: multiple social practices multiply within micro-territories, therefore poverty, although globally more visible, is less clearly identifiable. The city is much more fragmented today than in the past, and structural connections between poor neighbourhoods and the rest of the city are lacking. However, instead of improving public transport in order to connect the banlieue to the city, urban developers should deconstruct landlocked quarters and produce more sustainable cities. By creating centres of interest in the banlieues, the whole city would develop differently, it would be less centralised, and its inhabitants could appropriate it socially and culturally.

Bennett, Andy
Subcultures or Neo-Tribes? Rethinking the relationship between youth, style and musical taste
Sociology, 33(3):599-617

Schlüsselwörter: lifestyle, neo-tribalism, style, subculture, urban dance music, youth


Despite the criticisms of subcultural theory as a framework for the sociological study of the relationship between youth, music, style and identity, the term ´subculture` continues to be widely used in such work. It is a central contention of this article that, as with subcultural theory, the concept of ´subculture` is unworkable as an objective analytical tool in sociological work on youth, music and style ? that the musical tastes and stylistic preferences of youth, rather than being tied to issues of social class, as subculture maintains, are in fact examples of the late modern lifestyles in which notions of identity are ´constructed` rather than ´given`, and ´fluid` rather than ´fixed`. Bennett maintains that such fluidity is also a characteristic of the forms of collective association which are built around musical and stylistic preference. Using Maffesoli?s concept of tribus (tribes) and applying this to an empirical study of the contemporary dance music in Britain, Bennett argues that the musical and stylistic sensibilities exhibited by the young people involved in the dance music scene are clear examples of a form of late modern ´sociality` rather than a fixed subcultural group.

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