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Bibliographie

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References
van Lieshout, Maartje and Aarts, Noelle
Youth and Immigrants' Perspectives on Public Spaces
Space and Culture, 11(4):497-513
2008

Keywords: public space youth and immigrants frames influencing policy

Abstract:

This article reports on perceptions and practices of youth and immigrants concerning public spaces in the Netherlands. Policy formation does not necessarily incorporate their interests, even though they form large and growing demographic groups in Dutch society. Data were collected in semistructured conversations and group discussions and were analyzed using a set of concepts involving frames and framing. It is concluded that, despite the current context characterized by a decreasing availability of public space and an increasing use of virtual spaces via new media, public spaces remain important for both groups, especially for fulfilling important social functions such as the construction of identities. Furthermore, the interlocutors do not influence the design and use of public space via formal channels but, nevertheless, do have an effect via informal ways, by making use of informal networks, on one hand, and simply by being around, on the other.

Abbas, Tahir
Muslim Britain: Communities under Pressure
Zed Books, London
2006

Abstract:

This edited collection is a cogent exploration of how the events of September 11 and the subsequent war on terror have impacted on the lived experiences of British South Asian Muslims in a number of important spheres, namely, religious and ethnic identity, citizenship, Islamophobia, gender and education, radicalism, media and political representation. The contributors to this volume are specialists in the fields of sociology, social geography, anthropology, theology and law. Each of the chapters explores the positions of South Asian Muslims from different analytical perspectives based on various methodological approaches. A number of the chapters carry primary empirical analysis, therefore making this one of the most pertinent compilations in this field. Other contributions are more discursive, providing valuable polemics on the current positions of British South Asian Muslims.

Abu-Lughod, Lila
Writing against culture
In Richard G. Fox, editor, Recapturing Anthropology
page 137-162.
School of American Research Press, Santa Fe
1991

Keywords: culture, ethnography, writing, generalization, feminism, anthropology

Abstract:

Abu Lughod's text concentrates on different problems that anthropologists may come across when writing about the term ‘culture’. She argues that there is a need to write against culture as a concept as it enforces a separation between the self and the other, this in turn encourages a sense of hierarchy. She looks at how feminists and so-called 'halfies' disturb the lines between the 'self' and 'other', and on this basis reconsiders the value of the concept of culture, something on which those lines depends. These two particular groups seem to be criticised for their peculiar positioning and potential lack of distance when writing. There is an 'awkward' relationship between Feminism and anthropology as they seem to be diametrically opposed. One of the main points she tries to prove in her text is that, regardless of whether we are feminists or 'halfies', the ‘self’ is something that needs to be problematized and positionality can never be avoided. She also makes the reader conscious of the fact that we are contributing to a 'Western discourse,' and there may even be political affiliations involved. Abu-Lughod expresses her concern about ‘generalization’ in writing, which can be depicted as an effort to provide seemingly neutral descriptions. It can, as she argues, lead to the solidification of differences and to the representation of specific social groups as bounded entities. To combat generalizations, ‘ethnographies of the particular’ is suggested as a solution. This entails exposing the actual circumstances and histories of individuals and reconstructing people’s actions in order to show aspects of their social lives, thus challenging the rigidity of the notions of culture.

Acevit, Aysegül
Was lebst Du? Jung, deutsch, türkisch: Geschichten aus Almanya
Knaur, München
2005

Keywords: Germany, Turkish, second/third generation, short stories, practices, identity

Abstract:

This collection of stories discusses multiple roots, experiences, loves, carriers, beliefs and identities of people with Turkish backgrounds in Germany, often referred to as ‘Ausländer’ (foreigners) by both Germany’s and Turkey’s non-migrant population. Drawing on 41 autobiographical short stories and personal narratives by 26 German-Turkish authors, the editors Ayşegül Acevit and Birand Bingül focus on experiences of belonging/identity – such as ‘German’, ‘Turkish’, ‘bicultural’ – and on socio-cultural practices among second and third generation. Contributors to this volume include journalists (e.g. Canan Büyrü, Yıldız Deniz, Canan Topçu), actors (e.g. Erdoğan Atalay, Türkiz Talay), directors (e.g. Buket Alakuş, Sülbiye V. Günar), cabaret artist Django Asül and politician Cem Özdemir. The following are examples of their stories: Yildiz Deniz argues for the participation of actors with a Turkish background in German television commercials. Türkiz Talay reflects on why she prefers German to Turkish men as partners (relying on national stereotypes, i.e. independence/reason vs. subjection/temperament) and, in turn, on the prejudices of the mothers of her German partners against her. The contribution of Ipek Ipekçioğlu focuses on her ‘Turkish Coming-out’ and career as a DJane. Cem Özdemir recalls a childhood memory of his class mate Gül whose access to academic high school ‘Gymnasium’ was denied by her father. The topics of Ayşegül Acevit’s several stories range from experienced racial violence in the supermarket to a multigenerational gathering of and solidarity among women.

Ahmed, Sara , Castañeda, Claudia and Fortier, Anne-Marie
Uprootings/Regroundings. Questions of Home and Migration
Berg, Oxford
2003

Keywords: migration, processes of homing, inhabitancy, transnationalism

Abstract:

This book thematises ways in which different bodies and communities inhabit and move across familial, national and diasporic locations. The various chapters examine how migration is experienced in relation to home and belonging and how both are formed in relationship to individual and collective migration. It follows the premise that forms and conditions of movement are highly divergent as well as they exist in relation to similarly divergent configurations of placement, or ‘being at home’. The books overall aim is to challenge the naturalisation of homes as origins and the romantisation of mobility as travel. Its concept considers home and migration in terms of a plurality of experiences, histories and constituencies and workings of institutional structures. The chapters attend to histories, geographies, practices, forms of experience and relations to power marking processes of uprootings and regroundings. Questions of migration and home are addressed using different methods, materials and definitions, such as autobiographical accounts, fictional narratives and popular media through the analysis of rules of law, government policies and theoretical texts. The book is divided into three themes: 1. the dwelling and movement of bodies 2. moving into and out of homes as forms of relatedness and 3. trans/national border crossings. Yet the division into different realms should be understood as the product of the interdependence between them. The first section investigates ways in which home and migration are embodied. The relationship between bodies, places and mobilities are rethought by regrounding these concepts in specific histories, locations and forms of displacement and emplacement. The first chapter articulates indigenous peoples’ relationship to home as one depending on the indivisible relation between the collective body and the land. The second section offers critical perspectives on how family, genealogy and kinship are implicated in the uprooting and regrounding of homes. Here discourses of familial homes and home as familiarity as sites of belonging are questioned and the relationship between queer sexuality and discourses of family and home are discussed. In Chapter 5 queer migrant subject’s reimaginations of childhood homes are established against seemingly more progressive narratives of coming out understood as moving out of the familial home. It is argued that queer migrant subjects refigure coming out in ways that do not necessarily involve loss of the familial home. The third section of the book examines how the movement of some bodies across national borders works to enforce and challenge ideas of community and belonging. It highlights how categorical inequalities such as class, race, gender and sexuality continue to operate as exclusionary devices sorting out who can and cannot be mobile. Chapter 11 investigates experiences of trafficking across EU borders. Testimonies of East European women formerly involved in sex work are analysed and it is stated that dominant narratives of trafficking turn EU Borders into scenes of crime and position women as victims of criminal networks. However, these models cannot account for the lived experiences of crossing borders, instead it is shown that although borders are shaped by policing they do not simply imply victimisation and the loss of agency in non-privileged subjects but also entail complex and varied negotiations with equally multiple outcomes.

Aitchison, Cara , Hopkins, Peter E. and Kwan, Mei-po
Geographies of Muslim Identities. Diaspora, Gender and Belonging
Ashgate, Hampshire
2007

Abstract:

This timely book addresses this gap by collecting a range of cutting-edge contributions from the social, cultural, political, historical and economic sub-disciplines of geography, together with writings from gender studies, cultural studies and leisure studies where research has revealed a strong spatial dimension to the construction, representation, contestation and reworking of Muslim identities. The contributors illustrate the ways in which such identities are constructed, represented, negotiated and contested in everyday life in a wide variety of international contexts, focusing upon issues connected with diaspora, gender and belonging.

Alba, Richard
Bright vs. blurred boundaries: Second-generation assimilation and exclusion in France, Germany, and the United States
Ethnic and Racial Studies, 28(1):20-49
2005

Keywords: Assimilation ethnic boundaries race religion second generation social exclusion

Abstract:

In all immigration societies, a social distinction between immigrant and second generations, on the one hand, and natives, on the other, is imposed by the ethnic majority and becomes a sociologically complex fault line. Building on a comparison of second-generation Mexicans in the U.S., North Africans in France, and Turks in Germany, this article argues that the concepts associated with boundary processes offer the best opportunity to understand the ramifications of this distinction. The difference between bright boundaries, which involve no ambiguity about membership, and blurred ones, which do, is hypothesized to be associated with the prospects and processes of assimilation and exclusion. The institutionalization of boundaries is examined in the key domains of citizenship, religion, language, and race. The analysis leads to the specific conclusion that blurred boundaries generally characterize the situation of Mexicans in the U.S., with race the great, albeit not well understood, exception, while bright boundaries characterize the European context for Muslim groups.

Measham, Fiona , Parker, Howard and Aldridge, Judith
Dancing on drugs: Risk, health and hedonism in the British club scene
Free Association, London
2001

Alexander, Claire E.
The Asian Gang: Ethnicity, Identity and Masculinity
Berg, Oxford & New York
2000

Abstract:

In recent years the British mass media have ‘discovered’ a new and urgent social problem - the Asian ‘gang’. Images of urban deprivation and ‘the Underclass’ have combined with fears of growing youth militancy and masculinities-in-crisis to position Asian, and especially Muslim, young men as the new folk devil. This reimagination of Asian young men has focused on violence, drug abuse and crime, set against a backdrop of cultural conflict, generational confusion and religious fundamentalism. The Asian ‘gang’, it seems, is the inevitable product of these social forces. But what is the reality? Based on three years’ fieldwork with a group of Bangladeshi young men in inner-city London, this book attempts to explore the complex mythologies and realities of contemporary Asian youth experience. Taking the ‘gang’ as its starting point, the study examines the interaction of representation and reality, ethnicity and masculinity in a textured, in-depth and personal perspective that challenges traditional views on Asian communities and identities.

Alexander, Claire E.
Imagining the Asian Gang: Ethnicity, Masculinity and Youth after ´the riots´
Critical Social Policy, 24(4):526-549
2004

Keywords: Britain, citizenship, community cohesion, identity, Muslims

Abstract:

The paper explores the discourses surrounding the "riots"of 2001 as a reflection of contemporary understandings of raced/ethnic, gendered and generational identities, and changing discourses about race and ethnicity in Britain. The paper examines these themes in relation to current academic theorizations of culture, identity and difference. Finally, the paper explores the implementation of these understandings in current government policy papers and practices around ‘community cohesion’ and ‘citizenship’. It argues that each of these arenas employs very static and bounded notions of ‘community’, ‘culture’ and ‘identity’ which deny the complex formations of lived identities and obscures ongoing relations of power and disadvantage. This has clear implications for the future of multicultural policy, citizenship education and social justice.

Alleyne, Brian
An idea of community and its discontents: towards a more reflexive sense belonging in multicultural Britain
Ethnic and Racial Studies, 25(4):607-627
2002

Keywords: Community ethnicity race migration Britain classical sociology social anthropology

Abstract:

The paper addresses the problematic term of community, a term which Alleyne says should not be given a set definition, as it is a term which not only represents ethnographic data, but also a notion which can be bound by the imagination. He explores the history of the term through classical and sociological and anthropological thinking. He looks at the rise and emergence of the idea of the ‘individual’ in Western society, an idea that not only made Euro-American societies believe that they were the 'developed' societies, it also lead to the division of ‘we’ (‘West’ – individuals) and ‘they’ (‘Non- West’ – communities). Alleyne further explores and challenges what he calls fashionable discourses in Britain – unreflexive notions of cultural difference - and considers how these ideas of classical sociology and classical anthropology are still determining the ways in which community is imagined in Britain. He argues that post war settlements of Afro-Caribbean and South Asian communities saw the beginnings of a new language in ‘race’ relations. The term ‘ethnic community’ came under the spotlight and new discourses began to take shape. Alleyne touches upon the differentiations between the Black and South Asians, the former being seen as socially deprived and the latter as culturally different. Alleyne makes the case for a more ‘reflexive sociology’; giving some thought to our own practice as practitioners and turning sociology’s critical apparatus on itself, turning it into a sociological object. Using the example of the Black ‘community’ in Britain, Alleyne asks for such groups not to be considered as communities tied as one entity, but as groups which have to struggle and negotiate heterogeneity even amongst different ‘ethnic’ groups. He concludes the piece by asking sociologists to break away from the idea of community as a container of difference in order to further epistemological advancement in politics and ethnicity

Alonso, Ana Maria
The Politics of Space, Time and Substance: State Formation, Nationalism, and Ethnicity
Annual Review of Anthropology, 23:379-405
1994

Keywords: nationalism, state formation, ethnicity

Abstract:

In this article Alonso stresses that it is necessary to investigate processes of production of difference in a world of economically, socially and culturally interconnected spaces linked to relations of inequality. She argues that sociocultural anthropology is indeed aware of its former complicity with colonialism, yet its dependence on state power still has to be revealed. Therefore Alonso includes the state as an analytical category in her examination and explains how “the imagined“ turns into a “structure of feeling“. Starting with Benedict Anderson’s argument that nations are “imagined political communities“ she argues that hegemonic structures reproduce the idea of the state. At the same time they concretise the imagined community of the nation by articulating spatial, bodily and temporal matrixes. For example the identity regarding people, territory, heritage and state is reaffirmed by the use of botanical metaphors or images that refer to nature. Similar to the botanical metaphors, terms as mother- or fatherland are used and illustrate the link between the symbolism of kinship and nationality. Therefore Alonso stresses that more research is needed on this linkage. In her opinion the “commerce between eros and nation“ can only be grasped when considering the linkages between the ideological and the sensory, the emotional and the instrumental and its relation to the strategies of substantialisation. Moreover she points out that the “commonsensical“ notion that power structures are excluded from kinship can be further obfuscated According to Alonso there is another matrix conjoined with nationalism, the temporal matrix. Nations are imagined as having a heritage rooted in a common past and nationalist imaginings become omni-temporal through their sacralisation. In the second part of the article Alonso concentrates on the term ethnicity as an analytical category and elaborates on its difference from nationalism. While nationalism is partly an effect of the homogenising projects of state formation, ethnicity is partly an effect of its particularising projects. Thereafter the relation between nationalism, ethnicity and hegemony is elaborated. With reference to approaches from Marxist cultural studies based on Gramsci’s work, the author elucidates the state strategies of spatialisation, substantialisation, aestheticisation, commodification and temporalisation. These are all highly important processes for the construction of transformist forms of hegemony. Therefore she shows how the organisation and representation of space is part of ethnic formation and inequality has to be further examined and explored in order to reveal the dialectical structure of hierarchy and egalitarianism, heterogeneity and homogeneity. Through the equation of the dominant ethnic identity with the source of the nation, ethnic minorities are implicitly located at the peripheries where struggles over private and public spaces take place. Finally Alonso points out that the politics of space, time and substance and their role in state formation processes and nationalist discourses have to be acknowledged in order to be able to call this coherence into question. She mentions that the anthropology of transnational subaltern groups, diasporas, and border peoples could be a helpful starting point.

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