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All :: A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, J, K, L, M, N, O, P, R, S, T, U, V, W, Y, Z, Ö 
All :: Back, ... , Bhardwaj, Bhattacharyya, Blackman, ... , Butler 
Back, Les
New Ethnicities and Urban Culture: Racims and Multiculture in Young Lives
Routledge, London

Keywords: youth, South London, inter-cultural dialogue, racism


In his empirical analysis of the everyday lives of young people in two post-war council estates of South London Back explores new forms of inter-cultural dialogues and ways how racism enters the lives of young people. Based on the assumption of the metropolitan paradox he states that transculturalism and the crudest forms of racism can operate and exist simultaneously in urban youth culture. Referring to Stuart Hall’s conception of “new ethnicities“, Back demonstrates that social identities are produced through a productive tension between global and local influences. He uses the concept of community discourse and points out that “community“ should be understood as the product of competing social definitions that are not homogenous. He wants to explore the social functions of these semantic systems and their impact on the local manifestation or rejection of racism. The fact that the residents spoke about race and racism through the language of community was significant in both areas. The first part of the book focuses on a white working class neighbourhood called Riverview and its “white flight“ semantic system. White inhabitants refer to the “golden age“ of the community and explain that the “death of the community“ is linked to the settlement of black people and refugees from Vietnam. Theses two discourses result in the assertion that established residents were being forced to move away. Young people do not passively reproduce these patterns. In the adolescent community, an inclusive localism is formulated in which it is wrong to exclude people on the basis of colour. But this does not mean that racism is completely rejected. In his analysis of “duelling play“ practices Back comes to the conclusion that racism is rather used as a strategic resource and directed against certain groups of people. In the second part Back concentrates on the multi-ethnic district Southgate. This estate is characterised by the “our area“ semantic system. Two discursive elements are predominantly present here: The “harmony discourse“ is used to reject the legitimacy of racism and states that, although racism is socially significant, it does not occur in the district. The “black community discourse“ lays claim to the area as a ground for black organisation. In Southgate the existence of a racially inclusive local philosophy promoted more profound syncretic cultural dialogues between white and black youth. For Whites processes of inhabiting and vacating identities take place by adapting black codes and symbols. Young black people also localise racism outside the area of Southgate and mostly experience it within educational institutions, the police and at work. In the third part Back gives an overview of the musical cultures created by young people of South London. These have particular local features but cannot be explained in these terms alone. Therefore Back refers to Deleuze’s and Guattari’s notion of the rhizome and adds his idea of the cultural intermezzo as he theorises the ethnicity of these young people. He argues that syncretic cultures explored in this study can be understood as liminal forms of ethnicity. The alternative public sphere created and occupied by black and white peers in South London constitutes a liminal space in which inter-cultural and inter-racial dialogues take place. Liminality, understood in the sense of Arnold Van Gennep and Victor Turner, is an unstable phase and this cultural intermezzo is not fully autonomous but dependent on social contexts (e.g the the existence of national racist discourses) that pressure the liminal culture from outside. Therefore the new racial hybridism does not forcefully result in the fall of white supremacy.

Back, Les and Solomos, John
Theories of race and racism. A reader.
Routledge, London

Keywords: race; race relations; racism

Ware, Vron and Back, Les
Out of Whiteness. Color, politics, and culture
University of Chicago Press, Chicago

Bacqué, Marie-Hélène and Sintomer, Yves
Affiliations et désaffiliations en banlieue: Réflexions à partir des exemples de Saint-Denis et d'Aubervilliers
Revue française de sociologie, 42(2):217-249


La notion de désaffiliation mise en avant par Robert Castel est ici mise à l'épreuve d'un terrain spécifique, l'ancienne banlieue rouge. Mieux que celles d'exclusion ou de relégation, l'idée de désaffiliation permet d'y analyser l'impact de la précarisation de la société salariale. Cependant, du fait de son acception durkheimienne, cette notion sous-estime les contradictions auxquelles l'intégration sociale se heurte en permanence et met peu en lumière les contre-affiliations, importantes dans ces milieux populaires. La notion d'anomie qui lui semble logiquement liée rend mal compte des durs conflits de normes qui s'expriment dans les « incivilités ». Aujourd'hui, la désaffiliation politique et identitaire à la ville ouvritre renforce les effets de la désaffiliation à la société salariale. Les processus de réaffiliation, qui touchent d'un côté les couches moyennes du salariat, notamment à travers la démarche participative, de l'autre une sous-culture juvénile qui se reconnaît dans le rap, sont hétérogènes et inachevés et n'indiquent aucune ligne claire pour l'avenir.

Banerjea, Koushik
Sounds of Whose Underground? The Fine Tuning of Diapsora in an Age of Mechanical Reproduction
Theory, Culture & Society, 17(3):64-79

Keywords: class, clubbing, fetishization, mainstream, multiculturalism, orientalism


The piece contrasts the functioning realities of the British Asian diaspora - music, violence, sex, food, life - with the institutionalised production of knowledge about that diaspora, in particular as regards its expressive cultures. It focuses on the emergence of the so-called `Asian Underground' within a contemporary Benjaminian context of `mechanical reproduction' and explores the opportunistic relationship between middle-class elites and their efforts to appropriate a certain radical chic. It goes on to suggest that this is a deliberate process, which not only absolves a voyeuristic whiteness of its hegemonic associations, but also allows the Asian middle class to conjure out of sight class differentials, even as it struggles with its own dependency on the cultural lifeblood of the urban poor or the semiotically disadvantaged.

Banerji, Sabita and Baumann, Gerd
Bhangra 1984-88: Fusion and Professionalism in a Genre of South Asian Dance Music
In Paul Oliver, editor, Black Music in Britain
page 137-152.
Open University Press,

Keywords: Bhangra, music industry, community, youth culture, professionalization


Gerd Baumann and Sabita Banerji join together in writing an article combining two distinct and complimentary perspectives. Banerji goes through a social and musical history of Bhangra in Britain, concentrating on the issues that arise from the relationship between Bhangra and the music industry. The isolation of the South Asian community coupled with the need to preserve its cultural identity meant that Bhangra was able to grow in a greenhouse (p.139). However, in the early to late eighties, a generation of British South Asians raised in Britain grew and searched for a musical voice to state who and what they were. Indi-pop saw an east-west fusion and then other groups like Alaap became popular in different Asian centres in the UK. Bhangra then became a commercially promising music form and that was something the British media picked up on from late 1986. Bhangra was viewed as ‘cross-over’ music and became a part of British youth culture. In the latter part of the article, Baumann proceeds by picking up on issues that Banerji picked up on in the first part of the article concerning ‘professionalization’. Bhangra emerged into the media limelight from the emerging disco and gig scene but the publicity of Asian ‘daytimers’ truly brought it to the forefront by Asian youth. However, this also sparked the first professional crisis in the history of Bhangra, bringing forward a deluge of would-be promoters, which caused the Bhangra scene to fragment. The problems of piracy also became an issue, whereby producers were unable to control its distribution, even to the extent that producers colluded with pirates and took a cut. In 1988 Bhangra, succeeded for the first time, succeeded in giving visibility to South Asian music in Britain. The South Asian ‘cross-over’ started to be marketed with established images, tastes and style of mainstream pop and the charts. Artists and producers wanted to become more professionalized and wanting to get over the difficulties of distribution, publicity and image and move in to the mainstream, yet trying to hold on to the ethos of bhangra. On the other hand, not all artists engaged in ‘professionalization’ and for many they were still attached to the social structures associated with music in Punjabi community, like performing at birthdays and weddings in Southall. The music remained legitimate and credible as the music of a distinctive cultural community. At the time of writing, Baumann’s last comments are that he is unsure of Bhangra’s future and hopes that it does not become another fad in the British music industry.

Bauman, Zygmunt
Liquid modernity
Polity Press, Cambridge
Repr. edition

Keywords: Bauman, Zygmunt Postmoderne Soziologische Theorie


Bauman examines how we have moved away from a 'heavy' and 'solid', hardware-focused modernity to a 'light' and 'liquid', software-based modernity. This passage, he argues, has brought profound change to all aspects of the human condition. The new remoteness and un-reachability of global systemic structure coupled with the unstructured and under-defined, fluid state of the immediate setting of life-politics and human togetherness, call for the rethinking of the concepts and cognitive frames used to narrate human individual experience and their joint history. This book is dedicated to this task. Bauman selects five of the basic concepts which have served to make sense of shared human life - emancipation, individuality, time/space, work and community - and traces their successive incarnations and changes of meaning.

Bauman, Zygmunt
Community: Seeking Safety in an Insecure World
Polity Press, Cambridge


A Community is one of those words that feels good: it is good a to have a community, a to be in a community. And a community feels good because of the meanings which the word conveys, all of them promising pleasures, and more often than not the kind of pleasures which we would like to experience but seem to miss. A Community conveys the image of a warm and comfortable place, like a fireplace at which we warm our hands on a frosty day. Out there, in the street, all sorts of dangers lie in ambush; in here, in the community, we can relax and feel safe. A Community stands for the kind of world which we long to inhabit but which is not, regrettably, available to us. Today a community is another name for paradise lost - but for a paradise which we still hope to find, as we feverishly search for the roads that may lead us there. But there is a price to be paid for the privilege of being in a community. Community promises security but seems to deprive us of freedom, of the right to be ourselves. Security and freedom are two equally precious and coveted values which could be balanced to some degree, but hardly ever fully reconciled. The tension between security and freedom, and between community and individuality, is unlikely ever to be resolved. We cannot escape the dilemma but we can take stock of the opportunities and the dangers, and at least try to avoid repeating past errors. In this important new book, Zygmunt Bauman takes stock of these opportunities and dangers and, in his distinctive fashion, offers a much needed reappraisal of a concept that has become central to current debates about the nature and future of our societies.

Baumann, Gerd
The Multicultural Riddle: Rethinking National, Ethnic, and Religious Identities
Routledge, New York and London


Multicultural Riddle is a comprehensive exploration of all the issues that shape our search for a multicultural society. The book examines how we can establish a state of justice and equality between and among three groups: those who believe in a unified national culture, those who trace their culture to their ethnic identity, and those who view their religion as their culture. To solve the multicultural riddle, one must rethink national identity, ethnicity and the role of religion in the modern world. In this rethinking comes a new concern with the meaning and making of culture emerges.

Bayat, Asef and Herrera, Linda
Being young and Muslim: New cultural politics in the global south and north
Oxford University Press, New York , Oxford

Keywords: Muslim youth. Muslim youth Attitudes.


In recent years, there has been a proliferation of interest in youth issues and Muslim youth in particular. Young Muslims have been thrust into the global spotlight in relation to questions about security and extremism, work and migration, and rights and citizenship. This book interrogates the cultures and politics of Muslim youth in the global South and North to understand their trajectories, conditions, and choices. Drawing on wide-ranging research from Indonesia to Iran and Germany to the U.S., it shows that while the majority of young Muslims share many common social, political, and economic challenges, they exhibit remarkably diverse responses to them. Far from being "exceptional," young Muslims often have as much in common with their non-Muslim global generational counterparts as they share among themselves. As they migrate, forge networks, innovate in the arts, master the tools of new media, and assert themselves in the public sphere, Muslim youth have emerged as important cultural and political actors on a world stage.

Böse, Martina
Manchester´s cultural industries: A vehicle of racial ex/inclusion?
In Frank Eckardt and Dieter Hassenpflug, editor, Consumption and the Post-Industrial City
page 167-177.
Peter Lang Publishers,

Keywords: clubculture, cultural difference, creative industries, exclusion, underclass


This article explores the relationship between the construction of difference and the making of exclusion in the club culture economy. Based on ethnographic research in Manchester, it argues that the cultural practices of the consumers of a local cultural economy need to be viewed together with the practices of its producers in order to understand the interrelation of cultural differentiation and exclusion, which affects both groups. A discussion of the terms ‘underground’ and ‘underclass’, and their particular evocation in the cultural context highlights the interrelationship of social contexts, differentiation and exclusion in the cultural work realm. In conclusion, the article argues in favour of a consideration of these contexts and particularly of the inscription of ‘difference’ in research on work in the cultural industries.

Talbot, Deborah and Böse, Martina
Racism, criminalization and the development of night-time economies:Two case studies in London and Manchester
Ethnic and Racial Studies, 30(1):95-118

Keywords: Night-time economy nightlife licensing cultural regeneration exclusion cultural diversity


Nightlife has historically been identified as a social problem. In the contemporary context, however, this perspective competes with the promotion of the ‘night-time economy’ as a source of economic regeneration and extended licensing as a means to establish a more genteel ‘cafe´ society’. However, these changes have concealed a reconfiguration of differentiating strategies. This article explores this neglected issue through two cases studies, one based in London and one in Manchester, and examines the fate of black cultural forms, venues and licensees in contemporary nightlife. It will argue that, due to the historical criminalization of black youth, music and residential areas, black cultural spaces have been subject to a process of exclusion in the new playgrounds of the night-time economy. The implications of this for social cohesion will be examined.

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