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Bibliographie

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References
Faas, Daniel
Youth, Europe and the Nation: The Political Knowledge, Interests and Identities of the New Generation of European Youth
Journal of Youth Studies, 10(2):161-181
2007

Abstract:

Europe is undergoing considerable demographic, economic, cultural and socio-political change. National citizenship identities have been challenged by the simultaneous processes of European integration and the migration of people into and across Europe. This paper explores how the current generation of youth relates towards Europe, and highlights the factors affecting their political knowledge, interests and identities. Although the article draws on mainly qualitative data from a study into the political identities of native youth and youth of Turkish descent in England and Germany, the results have implications for all European countries 1. The research indicates that, in countries which promote European agendas and where schools and curricula emphasise an inclusive concept of Europe (e.g. Goethe Gymnasium in Stuttgart), young people have high levels of knowledge about Europe and make Europe part of their hybrid identities. However, in countries where governments and schools marginalise European agendas (e.g. Millroad School in London), young people struggle to relate positively to Europe, especially in working-class contexts where national(istic) agendas come to the fore. The article raises important questions about the possibilities of promoting inclusive governmental and curriculum approaches and offers ways in which the knowledge and identity gaps between youth in different European countries could be addressed.

Fagerlid, Cicilie
Beyond Ethnic Boundaries? British Asian Cosmopolitans: Thesis
2001

Abstract:

For a culturally/religiously/ethnically heterogeneous society to remain a society, two factors must be balanced. The various groups must have a sense of belonging in society, and they must not feel that their distinctions are under threat. Only when there is respect for diversity (within a broadly defined framework of shared values), can individuals feel free to make unrestrained choices. This simple logic stems from the philosopher and political theorist Bhikhu Parekh. An anthropologist will immediately ask herself, what are the cultural/religious/ethnic groups in question? To reframe Parekh’s logic in anthropological terms, it should rather concern categories. ‘Asian’ is such a category in Britain today. It was created – ethnicised – after the increase in South Asian immigration to London and other industrial cities in the late 1950s. It was a stigmatising category, and it did not include membership in the national imagined community. Therefore, society cannot remain a society if people feel excluded on basis of what characterises them as a category. The imagined category Britishness must not exclude the imagined category Asianness. For me, the enticement in Parekh’s rationale has been; how can we achieve it practically? How is the interface between recognition for difference, societal belonging and individual freedom played out? This thesis is based on 11 months fieldwork among, roughly, 30 British Asians, aged 20 to 30, in London in 1999. With the anthropological focus on the micro level, on the experiences of socially and culturally embedded individuals, the author hopes to show how Britain, step by step, is moving in the direction of a cosmopolitan society. In the first part of the thesis, four major discourses that position British Asians, and a fifth that opens a space for negotiation of a middle ground, are made out. In the second half, it is showed how this negotiation is carried out in individual lives. In this middle ground, new ways of being British and Asian are created. By focusing on the individual negotiation, the diversity that appears indicates that their British Asianness can be contained by neither an old idea of Britishness nor essential traits of Asianness.

Farias, Ignacio and Bender, Thomas
Urban assemblages: How actor-network theory changes urban studies
of Questioning cities
Routledge, London , New York
2010

Keywords: Cities and towns Growth.


Farrer, Gracia Liu
The Chinese Social Dance Party in Tokyo: Identity and Status in an Immigrant Leisure Subculture
Journal of Contemporary Ethnography, 33(6):651-674
2004

Keywords: Chinese immigrants, Japan, dance and leisure, international migration

Abstract:

This article is a sociological ethnography of a Chinese immigrant social dance subculture in Japan. It examines the logic of immigrants’ leisure participation from a social psychological perspective. Traditional immigrant community studies, focusing on immigrants’ social and economic adaptation and ethnic minority’s political mobilization, emphasize the collective identity building and group solidarity in immigrant ethnic subcultures. Without downplaying the theme of collective identity, the author argues that the recognition of individual status is an equally important motivation. Social cohesion within an immigrant subculture is achieved be-cause ethnic enclosure allows the removal of a stigmatizing immigrant identity, giving immi-grants a chance to display individual status resources.

Färber, Alexa
Hotel Berlin. Formen urbaner Mobilität und Verortung
LIT, Münster
2005

Featherstone, Mike
Cosmopolis: An Introduction
Theory, Culture & Society, 19(1-2):1-16
2002

Keywords: cosmopolitanism, globalization, city, citizenship, hospitality, democratization, global governance

Abstract:

This introduction discusses the increasing interest in cosmopolitanism in contemporary globalization studies. With regard to non-western forms of cosmopolitanism and cosmopolitan experiences of migrant workers (as opposed to Western intellectuals and artists), Mike Featherstone suggests to ‘understand cosmopolitanism in the plural’. Featherstone further outlines the various contributions to this collection: Ulrich Beck reflects on a ‘cosmopolitan society’. Bryan Turner defines ‘cosmopolitan virtue’ as respect for other cultures and irony towards one’s own from a perspective of citizenship theory. Couze Venn analyzes the relationship between ‘cosmopolitanism, hospitality and an ethics of responsibility’ which goes beyond the Enlightenment/colonial notions of citizenship and cosmopolitanism. The contribution of Mustafa Dikeç examines hospitality for migrants and refugees, from Kant’s ‘right of resort (visit)’ to a right of home and mutual recognition. Verena Conley looks at cosmopolis, ‘the world as a city’, which should be thought of as composed of politically and culturally active cosmopolitan citizens. Mica Nava considers the ‘cosmopolitan imagination’ in London at the beginning of the 20th century. Anthony Woodiwiss focuses on international human rights, in particular civil and political rights (e.g. freedom to vote, freedom of belief) as well as social and economic rights (e.g. right to work, right to cultural participation), the latter of which are believed to be too expensive to implement. Other contributions give attention to themes such as ‘Cosmopolitan Art and Cultural Citizenship’, ‘Transnational Feminism(s)’, bioinvasion or how the internet affects democracy. Featherstone concludes by arguing for more social justice and global governance, raising the question of what kind of global governance will or might emerge.

Feixa, Carles and Nilan, Pam
Youth hybridity and plural worlds: Introduction
In Carles Feixa and Pam Nilan, editor, Global Youth?
page 1-13.
Routledge,
2006

Feixa, Carles and Nilan, Pam
Postscript: Global youth and transnationalism. The next generation
In Carles Feixa and Pam Nilan, editor, Global Youth?
page 205-212.
Routledge,
2006

Keywords: global, youth, transnational, terrorist, next generation, Latino, gang, digital, cultures, hybrid

Abstract:

Referring to recent terrorist attacks in various countries, Carles Feixa and Pam Nilan draw attention to the double-edgedness of youth transnationalism. This means that global terrorists are digitally connected – to the global jihadist movement with its youth generation – just as new forms of mediated youth sociality cross borders of time and space. Using the example of the globalisation of Latino gangs, Feixa and Nilan outline four matrixes of ’global gang evolution’: First, the traditional gang model – an organised, territorial group of young male post-migrants in US-American cities – has shifted towards global gang formations. The editors show how, for example, the once criminal Latin Kings of Chicago have turned into a politically organised national, then international, and now transnational gang network. In the second matrix, Feixa and Nilan distinguish different forms of Latino gangs: small neighbourhood groups (pandillas), large organised gangs (naciones), and transnational youth movements (empires). Third, attention is given to the subcultural trends and lifestyles – like rastafari or hip-hop – of the global youth scene in European cities. Fourth, the editors examine the internet as a place of information (e.g. gang websites), communication (e.g. social networks and forums), and consumption (e.g. gang music and clothes) that has ‘globalized’ the gangs. The internet has not only inspired youth trends, but young people themselves have created cyberculture. However, ‘youth digital transnationalism’ includes both political activism – such as the ‘digital revolt’ in Spain after the 2004 train bombings – and terrorism through digital technologies. The contributions to this volume include young people on five continents. These, according to Feixa and Nilan, will eventually connect their various (transnational) youth cultures and create new ‘hybrid cultures of the next generation’.

Feixa, Carles and Nilan, Pam
Global Youth? Hybrid identities, plural worlds
Routledge, London/New York
2006

Abstract:

This collection of studies by international youth researchers, critically addresses questions of "global" youth, incorporating material from regions as diverse as Sydney, Tehran, Dakar and Manila, and advancing our knowledge about young people around the globe. Exploring specific local youth cultures whilst mediating global mass media and consumption trends, this book traces subaltern "youth landscapes" and tells subaltern "youth stories" previously invisible in predominantly western youth cultural studies and theorizing. The chapters here serve as a refutation of the colonialist discourse of cultural globalization. Showcasing previously unpublished youth research from outside the English-speaking world alongside the work of well-known researchers such as Huq and Holden, these accounts of youth cultural practices highlight much that is predictably different, but also a great deal of common ground. This book goes inside creative cultural formation of youth identities to critically examine the global in the local. Bringing together an internationally diverse group of researchers, who describe and analyze youth cultures throughout Europe, the Americas, Asia, Africa and Oceania, this volume presents the first comprehensive review of global youth cultures, practices and identities, and as such is a valuable read for students and researchers of youth studies, cultural studies and sociology.

Ferguson, Russell
Introduction: Invisible Center
In Russell Ferguson; Martha Gever, editor, Out There. Marginalization and Contemporary Culture
page 9-14.
The MIT Press,
1990

Keywords: Center, invisibility, marginalisation, Other, culture, resistance

Abstract:

This introduction discusses the relationship between marginality and center. Referring to other authors, Russell Ferguson defines the ‘Invisible Center’ as omnipresent ‘tacit standards’ or ‘mythical norm’ – generally male, white, Christian, heterosexual, financially secure – from which specific groups are distinguished as ‘Other’. Therefore, Ferguson argues for a plurality of voices that challenge the unquestioned authority of these norms. The author emphasises that the power of the center also affects the dominant Eurocentric canon – a corpus of ‘great’ literature, music, art, most of which created by White men – which claims universal representation of all human culture. In this way, Ferguson shows how male white artists have identified with a ‘glamorized otherness’ (the artist as marginalised outsider) that has made them forget their privileges. In addition, he outlines the contributions in Out There. Marginalization and Contemporary Culture. Richard Rodriguez, for example, reflects on the intersection of hierarchical categories of difference rather than on a single classification; he thus shows how one can be privileged by one category (economic status) and marginalised by another (race). Other examples give attention to the intertwining of coexisting cultures or how especially the ‘impure’, i.e. hybrid, can maintain an authentic voice. The author concludes by hoping for an ideal future in which differences will be recognised rather than appropriated in struggles for power; in which dominating groups will not be able to distance themselves from the struggles of female, Black, queer or poor people.

Ferguson, Russell , Gever, Martha and Minh-Ha, Trinh T.
Out There. Marginalization and Contemporary Culture
The MIT Press, New York and Cambridge
1990

Keywords: marginalisation, contemporary, culture, representation, Center, Other

Abstract:

This volume discusses the process of marginalisation in culture that isolates certain groups from the cultural norm and labels them as ‘Other’. The editors bring together critical contributions by, for example, Homi Bhabha, Gilles Deleuze and Felix Guattari; autobiographical essays, by bell hooks, Richard Rodriguez and others; as well as writings by authors such as James Clifford, Gayatri Spivak and Edward Said. Through these examples, different voices on race, class, sexuality, and gender become clear. In this respect, Out There. Marginalization and Contemporary Culture provides new perspectives on representation and culture. Referring to intersectional social divisions, Rodriguez emphasises that a person may be marginalised by, for example, ethnicity/race but privileged by class. Other contents of this volume include ‘Public Art in New York City’, ‘Repetition as a Figure of Black Culture’, and ‘Black Hair/Style Politics’.

Gupta, Akhil and Ferguson, James
Beyond "Culture": Space, Identity, and the Politics of Difference
Cultural Anthropology, 7(1):6-23
1992

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