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Bibliographie

Author:  
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All :: Habermas, ... , Herrera, Herrera Vivar, Herzfeld, ... , Hutton 
References
Habermas, Jürgen
The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere. An Inquiry into a Category of Bourgeois Society
The MIT Press, Cambridge
1992

Keywords: public sphere, democracy, civil society

Abstract:

In this book Habermas gives a historical and sociological conceptualization of the social nature and foundations of public life as well as the evolution of public opinion in democratic societies. Habermas concentrates on the emergence and development of the bourgeois public sphere and analyzes its historical transformation. Thereby he examines writings of political theorists such as Marx and Mill as well as institutions and social forms in which the public sphere was realized. Furthermore he traces the division between public and private in language and philosophy. Exploring the status of public opinion in the practice of representative government in Western Europe and how privileged private interests invaded public sphere, Habermas follows questions such as what the public is, what kind of power it has in a representative democracy, how public opinion shapes power and policies and how the system of political power is maintained in a democracy.

Hadfield, Phil
From Threat To Promise. Nightclub ‘Security’, Governance and Consumer Elites
The British Journal of Criminology, 48(4):429-447
2008

Abstract:

Drawn from an ethnographic investigation of Central London’s contemporary nightclub scene, this paper seeks to map previously obscure elements of the private governance of ‘security’ and the wider network of ‘nodes’ which govern Britain’s night-time economy (NTE). Attention to the constitution and operation of nodes and the interfaces between them provide insight into the co-production of particular forms of social order and situated meanings of the term ‘security’. The paper identifi es a criminogenic NTE in fl ux, driven by entrepreneurial zeal, a stratified consumer culture and forms of regulatory closure that conspire to exacerbate underlying tendencies toward social exclusion in the night-time city.

Measham, Fiona and Hadfield, Phil
Everything Starts with an ‘E’: Exclusion, ethnicity and elite formation in contemporary English clubland
Adicciones, 21(4):363-386
2009

Abstract:

Early Club Studies emphasised the inclusiveness of club cultures and the PLUR ethos of ‘peace, love, unity and respect’ alongside a polarised characterisation of nightlife contexts, as either commercial, alcohol-oriented nightclubs offering ‘mainstream’ pop music, or ‘authentic’/‘alternative’ underground dance clubs associated with widespread illicit drug use. This paper adds to the growing body of research problematising these simplistic characterisations of club cultures and leisure venues across the night-time economy, emphasising elements of fragmentation and segregation alongside the continued importance of social structure and resultant social and spatial exclusion. The authors explore how informal processes – such as club launches, internet promotions and dress codes – together result in the production and reproduction of two contrasting forms of English clubland elites: ‘cultural elites’ produced through the social, cultural and spatial exclusion of electronic dance music of black origin and its minority ethnic, working class and lower income followers from Manchester city centre dance clubs; and ‘consumer elites’ produced through the economic and cultural exclusion of working class and lower income club-goers from nightclubs in London’s West End. The complex and interweaving practices of cultural distinction and structural discrimination which produce such elites are often closely intertwined with the formal and informal regulation, marginalisation and criminalisation of specific cultural forms. The paper therefore argues for the construction of more nuanced conceptual understandings of the social divisions and inequalities within nightlife and in studies of young people’s leisure opportunities more generally.

Hadfield, Phil
Nightlife and Crime. Social Order and Governance in International Perspective.
Oxford University Press, New York
2009

Hadfield, Phil , Hobbs, Dick , Lister, Stuart and Winlow, Simon
Bouncers. Violence and Governance in the Night-time Economy.
Oxford University Press, New York
2003

Hadfield, Phil
Bar Wars. Contesting the night in contemporary British cities
Oxford University Press, Oxford
2009

Abstract:

In Britain today, if you are in the business of fighting crime, then you have to be in the business of dealing with alcohol. Binge drinking culture is intrinsic to urban leisure and has come to pose a key threat to public order. Unsurprisingly, a struggle is occurring. Pub and club companies, local authorities, central government, the police, the judiciary, local residents, drug and alcohol campaign groups, and revellers all hold competing notions of social order in the night-time city and the appropriate uses and meanings of its public and private spaces. Bar Wars explores how official discourses of ‘partnership’ and self-regulation belie the extent of fierce adversarial contestation between and within these groups. Located within a long tradition of urban ethnography, the book offers unique and hard-hitting analyses of social control in bars and clubs, courtroom battles between local communities and the drinks industry, and street-level policing. These issues go to the heart of contemporary debates concerning urban civility, alcohol and drugs policies, and the impacts of and justifications for new police powers introduced as part of the Licensing Act 2003 and Violent Crime Reduction Act 2006. The author's experiences as a disc jockey and as an expert witness to the licensing courts provide a unique perspective, setting his work apart from other academic commentators. Bar Wars takes the study of the night-time economy to a new level of sophistication, making it essential reading for all those wishing to understand the policing and regulation of contemporary British cities.

Hall, Stuart and Du Gay, Paul
Questions of Cultural Identity
Sage, London
1996

Abstract:

Why and how do contemporary questions of culture so readily become highly charged questions of identity? The question of cultural identity lies at the heart of current debates in cultural studies and social theory. At issue is whether those identities which defined the social and cultural world of modern societies for so long - distinctive identities of gender, sexuality, ethnicity, race, class and nationality - are in decline, giving rise to new forms of identification and fragmenting the modern individual as a unified subject. How does this 'crisis of identity' relate to the wider process of changes which are problematizing modern societies and undermining the frameworks through which people relate to institutions, each other and themselves? Questions of Cultural Identity offers a wide-ranging exploration of these issues, Stuart Hall outlines the reasons why the question of identity is so compelling, and yet so problematic. Individual contributors interrogate different dimensions of the crisis of identity providing both theoretical and substantive insights into its contemporary manifestations. Rather than privileging any one approach to the problem of identity, the book opens up a number of significant questions and offers insights into different approaches to understanding identity. In doing so it both illuminates and advances debates about identity and its futures.

Hall, Stuart
Ethnicity. Identity and Difference
Radical America, 23(4):9-20
1989

Keywords: Identity, difference, ethnicity

Abstract:

In this article Hall discusses questions of identity and ethnicity. He refers to the 'return of the question of identity' and states that this question seems to remain unresolved with regard to a number of intersecting discourses. Hall discusses some of these intersections in order to reveal their relation to the subject of ethnicity in politics. At first he explains how identity has been defined until recently. The previous discourses of identity assumed a stable subject, an essential self which is always in the same place. In the course of this Hall reconsiders the disruption of identity. He concentrates on four great de-centerings of the stable sense of identity in Western thought of modernism. Marx was one of the first to start this de-centering of identity as he explicated that there are always conditions to identity that are not constructed by the subject. Secondly Hall mentions Freud’s discovery of the unconsciousness. In this context the displacement of identity is based on the assumption that identity itself is rooted in the unknown of our psychic lives. As the third de-centering of the stable sense of identity Hall mentions Saussure’s model of language which revealed that we are always within language. In order to speak we must first place ourselves within the existing relations of language. As the fourth force of destabilisation of identity Hall mentions the consequences of the “end of meta-narratives“, i.e. the relativisation of the Western world and the disclosure of the linkage between knowledge and power. He emphasises that displacements of identity also come from social and political developments that have undermined the great collective identities such as class, race, gender and nation, without affirming that these great structures have disappeared completely. Hall also stresses that it is necessary to decenter the stable sense of identity, yet he is not convinced that one can do completely without identity. Therefore he calls for a reconceptualisation of it and points out that identification is not a fixed moment but process-related and therefore never absolutely stable. Furthermore he explains that identity is constituted through a relationship between one and the Other. The importance of this relationship can also be exemplified in psychoanalytic terms, especially in those of Lacan, who plays a significant role in the return of difference. His work revealed the thoughts on identity in relation to difference. Hall underlines the importance of this relation and therefore introduces a conception of ethnicity which connects identity and difference instead of contrasting them. Based on the fact that there is no enunciation without positionality, every voice can be traced back to a certain place and one has to accept that positioning is connoted by the term ethnicity. But the kind of ethnicity Hall talks about has a constructed relationship with the past instead of an essential one. Thus, his new ethnicity can be perceived as a new conception of identity because it is a new settlement between identity and difference.

Hannam, Kevin , Sheller, Mimi and Urry, John
Mobilities, Immobilities and Moorings: Editorial
Mobilities, 1(1):1-22
2006

Dauncey, Hugh and Hare, Geoff
French youth talk radio: the free market and free speech
Media Culture Society, 21(1):93-108
1999

Abstract:

French talk radio emerged in the mid-1990s as a form of programming which challenged accepted practices of French radio, especially when catering for youthful audiences who were attracted to cult radio programmes whose star presenters vied with each other to increase audience ratings. French youth talk radio has come into conflict with regulators over good taste and quality in programming, creating a wider debate over issues of censorship, culture and political correctness. This article analyses French youth talk radio through a number of scandals involving the radio stations Skyrock and Fun Radio, whose programmes elicited sanctions from the French regulatory body the Conseil supérieur de l'audiovisuel.

Harvey, David
The Political Economy of Public Space
In Setha M. Low and Neil Smith, editor, The Politics of Public Space
page 17-34.
Routledge, New York
2006

Keywords: public space, public sphere, Paris, Second Empire, class, segregation, commodity

Abstract:

This contribution examines the relation between urban public space and the politics of the public sphere, focusing on Second Empire Paris. David Harvey shows how the remaking of Paris around the middle of the 19th century, under the reign of Napoleon III and the influence of city planner Haussmann, combined a reorganization of the city’s structure with a revamp-ing of the public sphere. Hence, Haussmann’s wide boulevards not only facilitated military control but also the development of new commercial sites symbolised by cafés and depart-ment stores. Their main target group was bourgeois women. This restructuring of Paris was related to a social restructuring, the emergence of the middle class as well as the increasing class segregation. Moreover, it also included a symbolic shift regarding the representation of public space as commodity spectacle: it concealed social inequality. The poor working class represented the feared ‘Other’ of bourgeois Paris and the author elaborates on how the city’s boulevards turned into sites of political protest at the time. Harvey argues that this is due to the fact that the connectivity between private, institutional (commercial) and public spaces matters in terms of politics in the public sphere. Therefore, Harvey suggests that the Paris Commune of 1871 represented, at least to some extent, a resistance to this restructuring of public space and the public sphere.

Harvey, David
Spaces of hope
Volume 7 of California studies in critical human geography
Univ. of California Press, Berkeley
2008

Keywords: Communism and geography Human geography Regional disparities Space in economics Utopian socialism Marxian economics Utopias Equality Justice Social change Political aspects


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