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Bibliographie

Author:  
All :: A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, J, K, L, M, N, O, P, R, S, T, U, V, W, Y, Z, Ö 
All :: Nagata, ... , Negt, Nghi Ha, Niang, ... , Nur Orhan 
References
Nagata, Judith
What is a Malay? Situational selection of ethnic identity in a plural society
American Ethnologist, 1(2):331-350
1974

Keywords: Malay, ethnic, identity, assimilation, plural society

Abstract:

Most studies to date of ethnic relations, ethnic boundaries, and criteria used to define ethnic status have been biased toward a particular "assimilationist" model drawn from experience in North America, Australia, etc. These have generally assumed that there is some dominant or ethnically "neutral" area of culture by whose standards all "ethnics" can be judged, and that ethnic identity normally changes in one direction only. This paper examines the case of a plural society in which there is no clear dominant or neutral culture, and in which continuous oscillation of ethnic status occurs without direct assimilation.

Nauck, Bernhard
Intercultural Contact and Intergenerational Transmission in Immigrant Families
Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 32(2):159-173
2001

Keywords: intergenerational transmission, social/cultural capital, intercultural contact, second generation

Abstract:

The impact of intergenerational transmission processes on the intercultural contact and ethnic identification of second generation adolescents is studied in five different groups of migrant families: Italian, Greek, and Turkish work migrants, German repatriates from Russia, and Russian Jewish immigrants in Israel. In each group, 400 same-sex dyads of parents and adolescents were interviewed by means of a standardized questionnaire in the language of origin or of the receiving society. Four possible outcomes of intercultural contact are distinguished: integration, assimilation, segregation, and marginalization. An explanatory model is proposed that systematically relates these possible outcomes to the availability of social and cultural capital in migrant families and to intergenerational transmission processes. The empirical analysis using structural equation modeling compares the results for each migrant group. It reveals considerable variability between migrant groups that cannot be explained by classical assimilation theory, thus demonstrating the adequacy of the suggested model.

Nederveen Pieterse, Jan
Hybridity, So What? The Anti-hybridity Backlash and the Riddles of Recognition
Theory, Culture & Society, 18(2-3):219-245
2001

Keywords: boundaries, cultural politics, in-betweenness, multiculturalism

Abstract:

Take just about any exercise in social mapping and it is the hybrids, those that straddle cate-gories, that are missing. Take most arrangements of multiculturalism and it is the hybrids that are not counted, not accommodated. So what? This article is about the recognition of hybrid-ity, in-betweenness. The first section discusses the varieties of hybridity and the widening range of phenomena to which the term now applies. According to anti-hybridity arguments, hybridity is inauthentic and ‘multiculturalism lite’. Examining these arguments provides an opportunity to deepen and fine-tune our perspective. What is missing in the antihybridity ar-guments is historical depth; in this treatment the third section deals with the longue durée and proposes multiple historical layers of hybridity. The fourth section concerns the politics of boundaries, for in the end the real problem is not hybridity – which is common throughout history – but boundaries and the social proclivity to boundary fetishism. Hybridity is a problem only from the point of view of essentializing boundaries. What hybridity means varies not only over time but also in different cultures and this informs different patterns of hybridity. Then we come back to the original question: so what? The importance of hybridity is that it problema-tizes boundaries.

Needham, Gary
Disco Sucks! Pornography and Disco in the 1970s

Keywords: Gay culture, sexual culture, sexual liberation, disco, gay pornography, music

Abstract:

In this article the author explores the different connections and reflects on discourses relating disco and pornography during the 1970s with regard to disco music, associated images, disco spaces as well as its enmeshment in the gay culture and sexual culture of the 70s. Needham criticizes that the general use of the word disco has come to describe danceable music from the 70s without reflecting the complexity and historicity of disco, especially its association with cultures of gay sex, pornography and female orgasms. Here the author speaks of the dehistoricization and depolitization of the genre and its links to gay liberation and women’s liberation. This has lead to a general mainstreaming, an inauthentic nostalgia bound to a de-gaying and de-sexing of disco that divorced it from its relation to cultural sexual experimentation and dissent as well as pornography, orgasms and gay abandon. Drawing on articles that give a more nuanced description of the spaces, pleasures and identities of disco culture, films that map gay life as well as pornography and music Needham intends to epistemologically map and restore the relationship between disco and sexual culture. He examines the relationship between disco as a popular form of music and leisure in the 1970s and its salient connections to pornography and gay culture. The author explains that spaces of disco life such as night clubs and bars were important locations of gay sexual activity and socialisation and therefore central to the formation of gay identity and sexual culture where sound and space interlocked as a collective experience. Furthermore he analyses gay pornography, the ability to make it, exhibit it legally, perform and consume it as means through which gay life could be represented rather than exploited. Moreover Needham brings to mind that gay liberation is also sexual liberation as freedom from the shame of being gay and that porn therefore once represented an act of self affirmation. The author notes that making gay sex and culture visible instead of shamefully hiding it was one of the strongest strategies of gay politics, but is at the same time cautious against completely equating gayness in sexual terms. He explores sounds, lyrics as well as porn crossovers in disco as it was often criticized for being obscene in its sexual suggestiveness. He positions disco as central in reifying the female orgasm and independent female sexuality through a popular music form, as its marketing images and art work followed sexual politics of celebration and liberation of women rather than exploitation and sexism given in the contemporary mainstreaming of dance. Needham concludes that the legacy of disco and pornography needs to be contextualised in terms of their impact on the formation of sexual identities through the pleasures of popular culture as they were the nexus of a liberating experience for queers. This experience should be continually reclaimed from the perspective of queer studies and gay history.

Negt, Oskar and Kluge, Alexander
Public Sphere and Experience. Toward an Analysis of the Bourgeois and Proletarian Public Sphere
University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis and London
1993

Nghi Ha, Kien
Ethnizität, Differenz und Hybridität in der Migration: Eine postkoloniale Perspektive
PROKLA. Zeitschrift für kritische Sozialwissenschaft, 30(120):1-12
2000

Keywords: Ethnicity, hybridity, difference, postcolonial studies, identity politics

Abstract:

In this article Ha discusses different understandings of identity that emerged in response to discussions on the “multicultural society“ that have been taking place in Germany since the 70s. These discussions failed to thematize political and social equality and lead to the fetishization, exoticization and objectification of migrants and refugees. The author problematizes two contradictory survival strategies, assimilation and self-ethnization. Ha argues that both may offer coping strategies regarding racism, but fail to give perspective on how racist circumstances can be brought to an end. Efforts of assimilation involve the attempt to assimilate to dominant norms regarding culture , language and beauty ideologies as well as the acceptance of socio economic grievance and lack or absence of political agency. Self-ethnization refers to a „back to the roots“ approach that leads to self re-valorization and self-affirmation. Here heritage is not understood as deficient but functions as an identity giving privilege. However ethnic heritage is considered to be an essentialist collective or subject that hardly allows differences because of its homogeneity. The author emphasizes that ethnic identity and homogeneity need to be questioned and considered as social constructs. Moreover he suggests that they be broadened by including the terms difference, change and hybridity. Ethnic belonging as human essence forms a dangerous political concept leading to constructed factuality and essentialist conditions and can therefore be reactionary. However this does not mean that forms of ethnicity should be dispensed as they remain needed and are of importance. Ha continues by elaborating on ethnicity as self-construction, here the term is revised and pluralized. Ethnicity is not understood as a question of demarcation related to social change. This understanding aims at positioning the interconnection of politics and cultural identity regarding ethnicity at the center of the discourse. Ha argues that considering ethnicity a cultural identity means understanding it as a positioning determined by the ambivalence of social relations as well as a polymorph constitution of politics and culture and the selective reconstruction of history. However, the deconstructed identity is only acceptable against the background of a strategic essentialism, a strategic position emerging from the necessity of the subaltern demanding social change. The author points out that identity politics of difference recenter the subject at the heart of political agency and social change. Moreover this understanding of difference transcends binary oppositions and has become a place of political self-consciousness, speech and empowerment. Within the postcolonial discourse hybridity and difference is newly defined from the position of the subaltern silenced marginalized. This involves a shift from the objectified status to a position from which subjectivity can be demanded. In addition the deconstructionist reformulation of the term ethnicity asks for a more complex and contradictory understanding of culture as interference. The development of such forms of culture involved problematic mainstream appropriations within the culture industry. Still, they enable the development of multiple identities through multi-faceted cultural appropriations as they are not fixed. Ha argues that politics of difference allow the re-valorization of marginality and create space for voices within dominant culture. The postcolonial discourse suggests a thinking in categories of difference, self-construction and indetermination without forgetting the history of racism.

Nghi Ha, Kien
Hype um Hybridität: Kultureller Differenzkonsum und postmoderne Verwertungstechniken im Spätkapitalismus
Transcript, Bielefeld
2005

Niang, Abdoulaye
Bboys: Hip-hop culture in Dakar, Senegal
In Carles Feixa and Pam Nilan, editor, Global Youth?
page 167-185.
Routledge, London/New York
2006

Keywords: hip hop youth culture in Dakar, Senegal; bboys; social movements

Abstract:

In this article Niang analyses hip hop youth culture in Dakar, Senegal using research data collected around questions of young people’s creativity and commitment to social change. He focuses on whether hybrid hip hop youth culture in Senegal constitutes a social movement for change. Within the hip hop movement members gather in a posse that serves as an identification and integration framework for the rapper. Hip hop posses fulfil defined functions such as ones of family members. Furthermore the daily interaction within the posse leads to the emergence of norms among posse members. Niang states that in Dakar hip hop is a culture organised in relatively closed communities, whose challenging practices are accepted only with difficulty by the wider society. Yet hip hop forms a complex social movement in which the rapper is constituted as a spokesperson for the community. The author analyses hip hop as combining a strong identity base, namely the posse with the ideal of representing the masses. However, ordinary Senegalese consider the image of urban rappers to be unusual. In addition the messages in rap music are coded in a way that is not accessible to everybody. Niang emphasises that at large the masses do not identify with the alternative identity frame of the bboys, just as bboys do not identify with the conservative identity frame of the ordinary Senegalese. He points out that even if mainstream individuals agree with analyses of bboys in principle, they are likely to reject cultural forms and practices. Therefore Niang poses his main question namely, how the Senegalese hip hop culture can claim to represent ordinary Senegalese masses when the defining structure of this youth culture is the posse, a primary group with a tightly defined alternative identity that embraces a hybridised foreign cultural trend, which these masses do not identify with. The hip hop movement addresses questions regarding organising principles of Senegalese society and criticises poverty, unemployment and social inequalities. The author states that hip hop in Dakar is a complex phenomenon functioning between a social movement and psychologically satisfying primary groups. Niang argues that Bboys criticising inequalities simultaneously seek integration into the same society and acceptance by the majority, but want to move within a cultural system more adapted to their specific cultural and social aspirations. He notes that in contrast to rappers in France or the U.S, rappers of Dakar do not represent a minority voice but belong to a category of local youth whose major unifying features are urban poverty and daily inequalities they endure. He observes that mainstream Senegalese society is increasingly calling on rappers to raise public awareness and therefore shows respect to bboys and their culture as well as the hip hop movement is undergoing a professionalisation leading to bboys being in favour of social integration rather than continued marginality. Therefore Niang concludes that a renegotiation of the previously negative social relation between bboys and the rest of the Senegalese society is taking place.

Hitzler, Ronald and Niederbacher, Arne
Leben in Szenen: Formen jugendlicher Vergemeinschaftung heute
VS Verlag, Wiesbaden
2009

Keywords: Youth culture, youth scenes, life worlds, cultural networks, lifestyle

Abstract:

In their updated edition of „Life in scenes. Forms of juvenile collectivization today”, the sociologists Ronald Hitzler and Arne Niederbacher portrait several youth scenes in Germany by giving empirical, differentiated and structured insights since the 1990s. For the authors, “juvenile scenes” are forms of post traditional collectives in an individualised society. Collectivization is understood as a form of social relationship based on common bonds, shared solidarity and temporal togetherness. The Book structure is organized in three chapters. The first chapter “Theory: Scenes in the context of social modernisation” introduces the reader to youth and scene concepts as well as recent social changes in Germany. . In the second chapter “Empirical data: scene descriptions”, twelve different scenes are presented : Techno, Hardcore, Gothic, Skater, Graffiti, Computer Gamers scene, Daily Soap fans, Turkish street Gangs, Antifa scene, Drug scene, Youth active in the German lifeguard association and the extreme climbers scene. Referring to Irwin and Schulze, the authors characterize scenes as thematically focused cultural networks of persons who share special material or mental forms of collective self-fashioning of temporary nature. At the same time, juvenile scenes share, develop and stabilize common activities at urban spaces for instance, such as the skater scene does. The skaters ‘conquer’ urban space and use parking areas or pedestrian areas as meeting and practice points. The authors aim is to map the complex landscapes of juvenile scenes by systematically investigating and structuring the cross connections between the scenes. They point out individual development tendencies and typical identity affiliation of scenes and finally highlight typical potential for the development of personal skills. Therefore each chapter on a scene also gives a short portrait of the interviewed experts, elaborating on the historical background of the scene, quantified structural data, thematic priority, scenesters (Szenegänger) attitudes and motives, lifestyle and meeting points. The last chapter „Outcomes: Structures- differences – trends“ examines, compares and summarizes the featured scenes in a broader context. It investigates what social and spatial requirements (in public space) juvenile scenes have in order to be able to evolve, grow and expand. In their conclusion, the authors emphasize that their book is a temporal snapshot, as scenes can rapidly emerge, change and break up.

Feixa, Carles and Nilan, Pam
Youth hybridity and plural worlds: Introduction
In Carles Feixa and Pam Nilan, editor, Global Youth?
page 1-13.
Routledge,
2006

Feixa, Carles and Nilan, Pam
Postscript: Global youth and transnationalism. The next generation
In Carles Feixa and Pam Nilan, editor, Global Youth?
page 205-212.
Routledge,
2006

Keywords: global, youth, transnational, terrorist, next generation, Latino, gang, digital, cultures, hybrid

Abstract:

Referring to recent terrorist attacks in various countries, Carles Feixa and Pam Nilan draw attention to the double-edgedness of youth transnationalism. This means that global terrorists are digitally connected – to the global jihadist movement with its youth generation – just as new forms of mediated youth sociality cross borders of time and space. Using the example of the globalisation of Latino gangs, Feixa and Nilan outline four matrixes of ’global gang evolution’: First, the traditional gang model – an organised, territorial group of young male post-migrants in US-American cities – has shifted towards global gang formations. The editors show how, for example, the once criminal Latin Kings of Chicago have turned into a politically organised national, then international, and now transnational gang network. In the second matrix, Feixa and Nilan distinguish different forms of Latino gangs: small neighbourhood groups (pandillas), large organised gangs (naciones), and transnational youth movements (empires). Third, attention is given to the subcultural trends and lifestyles – like rastafari or hip-hop – of the global youth scene in European cities. Fourth, the editors examine the internet as a place of information (e.g. gang websites), communication (e.g. social networks and forums), and consumption (e.g. gang music and clothes) that has ‘globalized’ the gangs. The internet has not only inspired youth trends, but young people themselves have created cyberculture. However, ‘youth digital transnationalism’ includes both political activism – such as the ‘digital revolt’ in Spain after the 2004 train bombings – and terrorism through digital technologies. The contributions to this volume include young people on five continents. These, according to Feixa and Nilan, will eventually connect their various (transnational) youth cultures and create new ‘hybrid cultures of the next generation’.

Feixa, Carles and Nilan, Pam
Global Youth? Hybrid identities, plural worlds
Routledge, London/New York
2006

Abstract:

This collection of studies by international youth researchers, critically addresses questions of "global" youth, incorporating material from regions as diverse as Sydney, Tehran, Dakar and Manila, and advancing our knowledge about young people around the globe. Exploring specific local youth cultures whilst mediating global mass media and consumption trends, this book traces subaltern "youth landscapes" and tells subaltern "youth stories" previously invisible in predominantly western youth cultural studies and theorizing. The chapters here serve as a refutation of the colonialist discourse of cultural globalization. Showcasing previously unpublished youth research from outside the English-speaking world alongside the work of well-known researchers such as Huq and Holden, these accounts of youth cultural practices highlight much that is predictably different, but also a great deal of common ground. This book goes inside creative cultural formation of youth identities to critically examine the global in the local. Bringing together an internationally diverse group of researchers, who describe and analyze youth cultures throughout Europe, the Americas, Asia, Africa and Oceania, this volume presents the first comprehensive review of global youth cultures, practices and identities, and as such is a valuable read for students and researchers of youth studies, cultural studies and sociology.

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