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All :: A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, J, K, L, M, N, O, P, R, S, T, U, V, W, Y, Z, Ö 
Bredbeck, Gregory W.
Troping the Light Fantastic: Representing Disco Then and Now
GLQ, 3:71-107


Gregory Bredbeck’s article is situated at the Crow Bar, in the East Village of New York. The article is based on three vignettes that are presented by people who go to experience Crisco Disco music at the bar. The three people have different associations with the bar, however, it is clear that the disco is an idea whereby highly personal and historical identifications form. For the three people interviewed, there are different things that Crisco Disco represents, such as it being a heterosexual phenomenon, gay male separatism, its marking of a communal history and even a romanticized gay euphoria. As Bredbeck notes, it not only has an historical symbolism, it is a place that encourages dialogue between the very concept of “gay identity” and “gay identifications”. Engaging in the Crisco performance, Bredbeck argues, is to also engage in the performative. The performative requires the re(creation) and maintenance of identity through participation. However, Bredbeck expresses his concerns of the term being in debt to Althusser’s concept of interpellation. Interpellation can become a force that regularises and totalises and he wants to complement this process by arguing that the formation of a subject through hegemonic codes can in fact rupture ideas of totalisation and universality when embedded within specific places. The Crisco Disco is a space which allows for divergent strains of personal and communal history to play out within and between people. For Bredbeck, the Crisco Disco provides an incoherent image with multiple tensions of history and identification, whereas Edmund White’s work on Disco looks and is comparable to Benedict Anderson’s idea of ‘imagined community’. The eroticism of disco found in the seventies was associated with Gay identity and it helped build this idea of the ‘community’ and the Crisco disco seemed to be reprocessing the relationship between eroticism, identity and history in the nineties. This eroticism allows the dancer to sustain the history, nevertheless remaining separate at the same time. Although Bredbeck discusses the unifying qualities of communal identity, he highlights the fracturing of the disco along the lines of gender, race and class, and therefore the fracturing of interpellation. This replication of divisions, as Bredbeck argues, may be the expression of the very nature of identity. He acknowledges the pliability of gay space, with its ability to replay continually the scene of identification. Bredbeck concludes his article by leaving the question of identity open and calls attention to the sociality practice of dancing.

Brennan, Denise
What's love got to do with it? Transnational Desires and Sex Tourism in the Dominican Republic.
Duke University Press, Durham and London

Brenner, Neil
Urban governance and the production of new state spaces in western Europe, 1960-2000
Review of International Political Economy, 11(3):447-488

Keywords: Urban Governance, State Rescaling, State Spatiality, Glocalization Strategies, Path Dependency, Europe


Against the background of contemporary debates on globalization and the crystallization of a post-Westphalian world order, this article develops an interpretation of state spatial restruc-turing in post-1970s western Europe While many analyses of globalization and the changing state have focused on the construction of new supranational political regimes, such as the European Union, it is argued here that subnational scales, particularly those of major urban regions, represent strategic institutional arenas in which far-reaching transformations of state spatiality are unfolding. Neil Brenner suggests, in particular, that processes of urban govern-ance represent a key mechanism for the rescaling of state space. First, managerial-welfarist forms of urban governance are shown to have played a major role in the consolidation and eventual crisis of Keynesian welfare national states between the 1950s and the mid-1970s. Second, the entrepreneurial approaches to urban governance that have proliferated during the post-1970s period are interpreted as significant expressions and catalysts of'glocalization strategies'oriented towards a fundamental rescaling of national state space. In contrast to the project of national territorial equalization associated with Keynesian welfare national states, glocalization strategies promote the formation of Glocalizing Competition State Regimes (GCSRs) in which (a) significant aspects of economic regulation are devolved to subnational institutional levels and (b) major socioeconomic assets are reconcentrated within the most globally competitive urban regions and industrial districts. Urban governance therefore repre-sents an essential institutional scaffolding upon which the national and subnational geogra-phies of state regulation are configured as well as one of the major politico-institutional mechanisms through which those geographies are currently being reworked. The article con-cludes by underscoring the ways in which GCSRs exacerbate intra-national uneven spatial development, leading in turn to the introduction of new crisis-management strategies that further differentiate the institutional and scalar landscapes of state regulation

Bucholtz, Mary
Youth and Cultural Practice
The Annual Review of Anthropology, 31:525-552

Keywords: cultural practice, youth cultures, identity, modernity, agency, adolescence


The study of youth played a central role in anthropology in the first half of the twentieth century, giving rise to a still-thriving cross-cultural approach to adolescence as a life stage. Yet the emphasis on adolescence as a staging ground for integration into adult community often obscures young people’s own cultural agency or frames it solely in relation to adult concerns. By contrast, sociology has long considered youth cultures as central objects of study, whether as deviant subcultures or as class-based sites of resistance. More recently, a third approach an anthropology of youth – has begun to take shape, sparked by the stimuli of modernity and globalization and the ambivalent engagement of youth in local contexts. This broad and interdisciplinary approach revisits questions first raised in earlier sociological and anthropological frameworks, while introducing new issues that arise under current economic, political, and cultural conditions. The anthropology of youth is characterized by its attention to the agency of young people, its concern to document not just highly visible youth cultures but the entirety of youth cultural practice, and its interest in how identities emerge in new cultural formations that creatively combine elements of global capitalism, transnationalism, and local culture.

Buckland, Theresa J.
Dance in the field: Theory, methods and issues in dance ethnography
Macmillan, Basingstoke

Keywords: dance, theory, ethnography, methodologies


According to the editor, this book is the first attempt to address the ethnography of dance and movement. Although dance scholarship was established during the 1960s, this book aims to further promote this domain, by providing the reader with interdisciplinary essays focused on fieldwork. The book is divided into three parts, addressing reflections on theory, methods and issues in dance ethnography. In the first part, Kaeppler and Williams question the universality of dance by reconceptualising the foundations of dance scholarship. Their aim is to eradicate the idea that theories must be equated with field sites, because the field of dance anthropology has tended to focus on non-Western traditions, implying a degree of exoticism. Giurghescu and Felföldi argue that East European researchers on dance tend to work collectively instead of individually: this is the result of nationalist ideologies fostering state-funded archives and the employment of multiple specialists. The last essay of the first section, by Bakka, investigates the role of institutions in restoring traditional dances. Although this type of research employs history in an infrequent way – for rehabilitating supposed folk dances -, Bakka points out that folk studies should be self-critical with regard to the notion of folk. The second part of the book focuses on methods for dance research. Ronström investigates filming as a research tool in comparison with field notes. Hall describes her shift in methodology once she understood that tango performers give more importance to dance as a located performance instead of movement itself. These contributions argue against the use of technology as the ultimate research device. Farnell points out that methods such as Labanotation cannot substitute discourses on dance. Hughes-Freeland integrates actors’ voices in her analysis whilst Johnson Jones presents a collaborative use of Labanotation. These essays aim to renegotiate the relationship between observer and observed within the field. The last section relates to personal experiences in fieldwork: it aims to question political and ethical issues in empirical research. Grau, for instance, calls for more self-reflexivity when exploring Aboriginal Australians, as dance fieldwork can have important political consequences.

Burul, Yesim
The World of Aziza A. Third Spaces in Identity
New Perspectives on Turkey, (28-29):209-228

Keywords: Third space, Identity, Hip-hop music, German-Turkish, Turkish migrants, Berlin, hybrid identity


In her article, Yesim Burul discusses both the identity formation process and express themselves as second generation German Turks, using the example of female Rapper Aziza A. She got known as the first German-Turkish female rap-singer in 1995. Burul draws upon the work of Homi Bhabha (1990 and 1994) and Edward W. Soja (1996) and uses the term “third space” in relation to identity formation. According to Burul, the notion of “third space” is developed differently by Bhabha and Soja. Burul claims that for Bhabha “third space” becomes necessary as a modifier for his concept of hybridity. In contrast, Soja’s definition of “third space” is mainly seen as referring to practices, shaping the production of lived social space. Based on this approach, Burul presumes Bhabha’s understanding of “third space” as being exploit for intersubjective processes of identity formation; whereas Soja’s notion of “third space” is of use for understanding processes in social and cultural spaces. Aziza A. has been seen by the media as a spokesperson for second-generation immigrant youth in Germany, even though she hasn’t seen herself in this role. The author discusses Aziza A.’s latest album Kendi Dünyam (My own world) and focuses on its last track “Outro”, where Aziza A. is addressing her acknowledgements personally in three languages, namely Turkish, German and English. Analyzing this track, Burul elaborates three different dimensions of spaces in Aziza A.’s “Outro”, strictly speaking the personal, multilingual and mental space. Thus Burul interprets Aziza A.’s album Kendi Dünyam (My own world) as an expression of Aziza’s own multi-faceted, hybrid identity.

Butler, Judith P
Bodies that matter: On the discursive limits of "sex"
Routledge, New York

Keywords: Feminist theory Sex role Philosophy Sex differences (Psychology) Sexual orientation Philosophy Identity (Psychology) Femininity Social sciences

Caglar, Ayse
Verordnete Rebellion: Deutsch-türkischer Rap und türkischer Pop in Berlin
In Ruth Mayer and Mark Terkessidis, editor, Globalkolorit
page 41-56.
Hannibal Verlag,


“Enacted Rebellion” is concerned with German Turkish Rap, Hip Hop music in Berlin in the late 1990s, but also with the development of Turkish Pop music scenes as an opener for the representation of German Turkish scenes in public urban spaces. Caglar describes the contemporary German Turkish Rap and Hip Hop scene, discussing their social dynamics and pointing out that specifically Rap music is still associated with marginalized and ghettoized youth. The article explains the important role of music-oriented activities at youth centers and the influence of social workers for the increasing popularity of this music genre for (mainly male) German Turkish youth and contextualizes the development of a German Turkish pop culture both politically and socially. Her main argument is that the spatial linking of 'ethnic minorities' to ‘ghettos’ could lead to the neglect of other existing German Turkish public spaces in Berlin, which are important starting points for new draftings of community and identity. The article demonstrates how Turkish pop music has influenced the emergence of German Turkish club scenes in Berlin and thus of new public spaces. Turkish Restaurants, Cafés and bars existed since the 1970s, but with initially more Turkish folkloric music and ambient, specifically in districts with a high German Turkish population. Caglar points out that with the beginning of the early 1990s, new Turkish Clubs, Bars and Discotheques present themselves in a more modern style and move away from perceived 'ghetto' to central districts, functioning as important venues for the identity building process of young German Turks.

Caldeira, Teresa P. R.
Fortified Enclaves: The New Urban Segregation
In Setha M Low, editor, Theorizing the city
page 83-106.
Rutgers University Press,

Keywords: fortified enclaves, segregation, social inequality, privatisation


In this article Caldeira analyses a new model of spatial segregation and the transformed quality of public life created by the proliferation of fortified enclaves – privatised, enclosed and monitored spaces for residence, consumption, leisure and work. They tend to be socially homogeneous environments, mostly for middle and upper classes and confer a high status that implies a new code of social distinction explicitly referring to separation, isolation and protection. Caldeira states that Enclaves are mainly justified by the fear of violence and appeal to those seeking to abandon the poor and marginalised. In cities fragmented by fortified enclaves difficulties arise to maintain the principles of openness and free circulation that have been the most significant organising values of modern cities. As a consequence the character of public space and of citizens’ participation in public life changes. Caldeira emphasises results such as the diminishment of heterogeneous contacts that leads to a rigid perception of social differences and proximity with people from different groups seen as dangerous while inequality and distance increases. Although the degree of segregation varies in different contexts it is present in similar forms and effects regarding the organisation of public life. The new enclaves represent a new form of organising social differences and creating segregation in many cities around the world. The author points out that although modern western cities have always been marked by social inequalities and spatial segregation they maintained signs of openness and values connected to the idea of public space accessible to all. However, the new fortified enclaves in cities such as Los Angeles and Sao Paulo reject these principles and instead take inequality and separation as their values. They use instruments of modernist city planning and architectural design to destroy public spaces while aiming to enlarge specific private domains in order to fulfil public functions in a segregated way. Caldeira argues that defensible architecture is likely to promote conflict instead of preventing it, as it underlines social inequalities and lack of commonalities. She goes on to discuss how the new pattern of urban segregation may relate to experiences of citizenship and democracy and questions that contemporary cities segregated by fortified enclaves generate conditions conducive to democracy, as people need to acknowledge people from different groups as citizens for this. Caldeira suggests rethinking the parameters of citizenship in such cities as the criterion for participation in political life could be local residence rather than national citizenship. Furthermore it may be possible that this local participation is increasingly necessary to make those cities liveable for the impoverished population that increasingly consists of immigrants. Caldeira draws two conclusions, one pessimistic and one optimistic. Pessimistically the already achieved direction of new segregation makes it impossible for a variety of social groups to engage in political life in which common goals and solutions would have to be negotiated. Here citizenship is meaningless. Optimistically the change in the criteria for admission to political life and the consequent change in status for a great amount of the population generate a wider engagement in the search for solutions to common problems that potentially bridges some distances.

Canetti, Elias
Masse und Macht
Fischer, Frankfurt

Keywords: crowds, masses, power, survivor, command, transformation


This book, first published by Elias Canetti in 1960, examines the characteristics and dynamics of crowds and power. By exploring the formation of masses into which individuals merge, Canetti emphasises that individuals lose their fear of being touched in a crowd through a collective sense of unity that makes them forget social distances and hierarchies. A crowd, according to Canetti, is characterised by ‘growth’, ‘equality’, ‘density’ and ‘direction’. Drawing on different fields of the humanities (history, philosophy, sociology and anthropology), mythology, his own experiences and thoughts, the author looks at a variety of crowds, such as armies, funerals, packs of hounds, rain dances, parliaments or national mass symbols. Writing against the backdrop of Nazism, Canetti suggests that power is implied in the survivor's triumph over the dead as well as in the paranoid leader’s control over his subjects’ life and death. Other instruments of power described by Canetti include questioning, keeping a secret and silence (the latter of which, however, restricts the ‘fluidity of transformation’). In addition, Canetti tries to explain why crowds obey leaders. Therefore, he outlines the two parts of a command: first, the impulse that forces the individual to obey for fear of punishment; second, the sting that continues to remind her or him of the command. Moreover, this means that the stings from commands may accumulate and eventually lead to the reversal in which the subordinate transmits the command to others.

Carr, Stephen
Public space
of Cambridge series in environment and behavior
Cambridge University Press, Cambridge

Keywords: Public spaces Public spaces Planning Case studies United States City and town life United States Urban regions Environment planning United States

Castells, Manuel
Toward a Sociology of the Network Society
Contemporary Sociology, 29(5):693-699


In this article, Castells argues that the important technological changes that have taken place in the 21st century need to be analysed by virtue of a new sociology involving an innovative analysis of processes and structures of the “network society”. The latter refers to new social formations resulting from the development of information technologies. Castells states that the new technological paradigm contributes to the enactment of structural social change: firstly, globalisation allows for the possibility of working collectively on a global scale; secondly, dominant cultural manifestations become hypertexts; thirdly, the nation-state and the family as social organisational models are redefined along with new forms of political representation. The dominance of markets and networks upon society creates an institutional void that allows for the affirmation of collective primary identities along the lines of ethnicity, religion, locality and nation. Instead of forms of collective identification based on negotiated institutions, new communes are founded on the basis of shared values. The network society results from the combination of these transformations with innovative forms of social practice. Although networking in itself is not a new paradigm of interaction, the electronic network society is based on increased flexibility and adaptability. Additionally, though networks were unable to manage complexity beyond a critical size, Castells reckons that the internet contributes to coping with this issue more effectively. He argues for the necessity of an analysis of electronically-based networks going beyond notions such as centre and hierarchy in favour of other dimensions of change, such as the transformation of spatial structures. Moreover, there is the need of appreciating the importance of the subjective dimension of social action. Castells points out that this complexity must be explored through new sociological methodologies involving relevant theorising, computational literacy and sociological imagination.

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